The conditional strategy provides a powerful explanation for the persistence of alternative behavioral tactics in a population. The conditional strategy more fully accommodates properties of many biological systems than traditional game theory models of behavioral diversity. In particular, the conditional strategy allows for tactic inheritance when there are differences of tactic fitness, a situation that is expected (in a game theory context) to drive the tactic that yields the highest fitness to fixation. In many biological systems negative maternal or paternal effects further complicate the inheritance of condition and, hence, the inheritance of alternative behavioral tactics. Indeed, inheritance of condition in such systems may result in the alternation of tactics across generations. In this paper, we show that the conditional strategy is robust to these effects on progeny condition. There is a unique and stable proportion of tactics under standard inheritance and these two important properties of the conditional strategy hold even if negative maternal or paternal effects on progeny condition cause tactics to alternate across generations. However, the dynamics of tactic proportions pursuant to a perturbation of the equilibrium tactic proportions depends on the form of tactic inheritance. We apply our theoretical results to a population of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in which negative paternal effects dictate individual condition and cause an alternation in age at first reproduction across generations. This shows how the model of the conditional strategy can be used to gain insight into tactic dynamics in situations where some of the model parameters are difficult or impossible to measure empirically.
Wiegmann D., Moore, C. Flsher, N., Harper, E., Keto, K., Hebets, E. and Bingman, V. (2018). Nocturnal navigation by whip spiders: antenniform legs mediae near-distance olfactory localization of a shelter. Animal Behavior, 149, 45-54.
Wiegmann, D.D., Hebets, E.A., Gronenberg, W., Graving. J.M., and V.P. Bingman. 2016. Amblypygids: Model Organisms for the Study of Arthropod Navigation Mechanisms in Complex Environments? Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 10, 1-8.
Seubert, S.M., G.A. Wade and D.D. Wiegmann. 2011. The variability of male quality and female mate choice decisions: second-order stochastic dominance and the behavior of searchers under a sequential search strategy. Journal of Mathematical Biology, 63, 1121-1138.
Wiegmann, D.D., S. Seubert and G.A. Wade. 2010. Mate choice and optimal search behavior: fitness returns under the fixed sample and dequential search strategies. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 262, 596-600.
Wiegmann, D.D., K.L. Smith and S.M. Seubert. 2010. Multi-attribute mate choice decisions and uncertainty in the decision process: a generalized sequential search strategy. Journal of Mathematical Biology, 60, 543-572.
Wiegmann, D.D. and B.H. Smith. 2009. Incentive relativity and the specificity of reward expectations in honey bees. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 22, 141-152.
Smith, K.L., J.G. Miner, D.D. Wiegmann and S.P. Newman. 2009. Individual differences in exploratory and antipredator behaviour in juvenile smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Behaviour 146, 283-294.
Wiegmann, D.D. and L.M. Angeloni. 2007. Mate choice and uncertainty in the decision process. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 249, 654-666.
Wiegmann, D.D., and T. Nguyen. 2006. Mating system and demographic constraints on the opportunity for sexual selection. Theoretical Population Biology 69: 34-47.
Waldron, F.A., D.D. Wiegmann and D.A. Wiegmann. 2005. Negative incentive contrast and flower choice in bumble bees. International Journal of Comparative Psychology 18: 281-294.
Wiegmann, D.D. and M. Morris. 2005. Search behavior and mate choice. Recent Advances in Experimental and Theoretical Biology 1: 201-216.
Wiegmann, D. D., L. M. Angeloni, J. R. Baylis, and S. P. Newman. 2004. Negative Maternal and Paternal Effects on Inheritance of Life History Tactics Under a Conditional Strategy. Evolution 58, 1530-1535.
Wiegmann, D. D., D. A. Wiegmann, and F. A. Waldron. 2003. Effects of a reward downshift on the consummatory behavior and flower choices of bumble bee foragers. Physiology & Behavior 79, 561-566.
Wagner, W. E., Jr., M. R. Smeds and D. D. Wiegmann. 2001. Experience affects female responses to male song in the variable field cricket. Ethology 107, 769-776.
Wiegmann, D. D., D. A. Wiegmann, J. MacNeal and J. Gafford. 2000. Transposition of flower height by bumble bee foragers. Animal Cognition 3, 85-89.
Wiegmann, D. D. 1999. Search behavior and mate choice by female field crickets, Gryllus integer. Animal Behaviour 58, 1293-1298.
Wiegmann, D. D., K. Mukhopadhyay, and L. A. Real. 1999. Sequential search and the influence of male quality on female mating decisions. Journal of Mathematical Biology 39, 193-216.
Shafir, S., D. D. Wiegmann, B. H. Smith, and L. A. Real. 1999. Risk-sensitive foraging: choice behavior of honey bees in response to variability in volume of reward. Animal Behaviour 57, 1055-1061.