CURS Virtual Symposium

Undergraduate Symposium for Research and Scholarship 2020

Hosted by the Center for Undergraduate Research and Scholarship

Welcome to our annual Undergraduate Symposium for Research and Scholarship!

Because of the unprecedented circumstances due to COVID-19 we decided to move our symposium this year to an online forum to ensure the safety of all our students, faculty, and staff. We are proud to present almost 150 research, scholarly, and creative projects by over 200 undergraduate students from a wide range of fields and disciplines. In addition to students from our institution, we are also very excited to host presentations by students from two other regional institutions (The University of Toledo and Ohio Northern University). Please help us celebrate all of these students’ accomplishments by sharing the link for this page widely. For any questions or comments, please contact Dr. Cordula Mora (director of the Center for Undergraduate Research and Scholarship) at  To our guests with disabilities, please also email Dr. Cordula Mora, if you need special services, assistance or appropriate modifications to fully participate in this event.

College of Arts and Sciences

Biological Sciences

Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs) are transposons that move within the genome of a mammalian host via a ‘copy and paste’ mechanism of an RNA intermediate, called retrotransposition, resulting in the intracellular amplification of existing copies. SINEs are nonautonomous, meaning they are not able to replicate alone themselves, but instead rely on their partner retrotransposon of the Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs) to provide the enzymatic machinery for retrotransposition. As parasites of LINE elements’ machinery, SINEs are widespread and highly abundant in the vast majority of mammalian genomes. SINEs originate from host-encoded cellular RNAs that have included 7SL RNA, tRNA, 5S RNA, and a few others. 7SL-derived SINEs originate from a specific derivative of the RNA component of the mammalian cellular Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) and adopt its 7SL RNA folding structures and protein binding partners. These 7SL-derived SINEs are able to bind to the interface between the small and large ribosomal subunit, halt translation, and hijack the enzymatic machinery, assuring efficient retrotransposition. The SINE derivative therefore is able to directly access the ribosome, facilitating the means to hijack LINE's enzymatic activities as translated on the ribosome. 7SL SINE RNA structures, particularly the human Alu and murine B1 elements, have been well studied in terms of retrotransposition. However, little is known about tRNA-derived SINE structures and how their folding patterns and structures influence retrotransposition. Elements of the B1 7SL-derived SINEs have lost most of their retrotransposition capacity due to a mutation at position 24 of the SINE RNA involved in SRP-host protein binding and docking on the ribosome. B2 is a tRNA-derived SINE that, surprisingly, has retained the ability to retrotranspose at relatively robust levels. B2 was not suspected to retrotranspose as well as B1 because scientists are not aware of any ribosome binding tactics B2 utilizes. Using genomic mouse DNA, B1 and B2 SINEs were isolated to study their sequences and retrotransposition efficiency. This research focuses on the scholarly questions of i.) what structural variation in B1 and B2 SINE retroelements aid in the mobilization from the nucleus to the ribosome; ii.) will these structural variations assist in increased or decreased retrotransposition; and iii.) seeks to assess tRNA-derived SINE activities from the cytoplasm to the ribosome by measuring the retrotransposition capacity of individual SINE structures.

Faculty Mentor: Julia Halo, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Jordyn Hutchison, Abigail Jarosz, Neocles Leontis and Julia Halo

Baltzly Madison

The CDC has classified antibiotic resistance as the biggest health challenge of our era; every year 2 million lives are impacted and even lost due to resistant bacteria. Bacteriophages provide an alternative route to fighting infections that does not further the development of antibiotic resistance among bacterial species. A bacteriophage replicates inside a bacterial cell and then causes that cell to lyse, an event that kills the bacterial host. Bacteriophage therapy was first pioneered in the treatment of dysentery by Felix d’Herelle as early as 1915. Since d’Herelle’s initial excursion into medicinal use of bacteriophage, more work has been done in the categorization and discovery of new clusters and strains of phage. The HHMI SEA-PHAGES program has generated a collection of bacteriophage that infect Actinobacteria species. Over 13,000 phages have been collected thus far; however, fewer than 3,000 have been sequenced and genetically analyzed. The purpose of research into the lysogeny of discovered, but unsequenced, bacteriophage is to classify them by immunity range. In determining immunity range these ambiguous phage can be related to those that have been studied in depth. Initially, a lysogen had to be isolated. A lysogen is a bacterium in which a phage has integrated without causing host lysis. For Pita2, a phage isolated and analyzed at Bowling Green State University, the host to be infected is Mycobacterium smegmatis. After plating bacterial cells with Pita2, the plate holds potential lysogenic samples, those bacteria not lysed by the phage infection. The purified lysogen of Pita2 was analyzed against bacteriophages with known DNA sequences to determine a range of immunity; this range was then used to analyze unknown bacteriophages. The final step of this project, PCR deconvolution of phage DNA, was interrupted but nevertheless yields information about bacteriophage-mediated immunity.

Faculty Mentor: Jill Zeilstra-Ryalls, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Behling Eleanor Myobacteriophage  

Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) species often colonize the lungs of individuals with Cystic Fibrosis, a disorder that causes fluid accumulation in pockets of the lungs. These species have become multi-drug resistant in recent years and as such the need for other treatment methods has grown. One possible method of treatment is bacteriophage therapy. Bacteriophage are viruses that can infect and subsequently kill bacteria. As antibiotics lose their effectiveness against human pathogens, including BCC species, phage therapy is a promising method of combating bacterial invaders. The bacteriophage isolated in this experiment may prove to be a stepping stone in building a database of characterized viruses that can be used clinically. The goal in isolating novel BCC bacteriophage is to provide a new solution to Burkholderia infections and increase the scientific community’s understanding of the viruses that colonize human pathogens. Expanding the bacteriophage options for treating pathogenic infections not only allows medicine to skirt the antibiotic resistance crisis, but through studying the mechanisms of phage infection more can be learned about the pathogens themselves. The objective of this research venture is to isolate and characterize a novel bacteriophage on the host Burkholderia thailandensis.

Faculty Mentor: Ray Larsen, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Behling Eleanor Bacteriophage 

Researchers have been looking into the potential of using bacteriophage therapy to treat bacterial infections in individuals diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis is a disease that causes the body to produce a thick mucus which can obstruct the lungs. Cystic fibrosis also makes it so that individuals who have the disease are very susceptible to a variety of bacterial infections. Mycobacterium abscessus has been emerging as a deadly pathogen among those diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, increasing both mortality and morbidity rates. Mycobacterium abscessus therapy takes years to complete and can negatively affect the lung functionality. Recently, it was reported that a 15-year-old with cystic fibrosis with a Mycobacterium abscessus infection received an intravenous phage treatment that consisted of a genetically engineered phage mixture that optimized the lytic activity of the phage. This leads us to hypothesize bacteriophage Adriana, which is being annotated in the SEA-PHAGE lab at Bowling Green State University, could potentially be used for treatment of Mycobacterium infections in cystic fibrosis patients. A comparison of the lytic genes in the previously mentioned phage therapies and the lytic genes of Adriana will be presented and could predict Adriana’s effectiveness in phage therapy in cystic fibrosis patients.

Faculty Mentor: Vipaporn Phuntumart, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Sudhan Pachhain, Oluwaseun Oyeniyi Babatunde, Zhaohui Xu

Boomer Meghan

Primary endothelial cilia are mechanosensory organelles that are projected into the lumen of blood vessels and kidney tubules. Defects in cilia assembly or function can lead to multiple human pathologies, including hypertension in Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD). Acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter, is implicated in essential hypertension in humans. It has been demonstrated that vascular endothelia require primary cilia to sense and transmit external mechanical stimuli into internal biochemical reactions. One of these reactions includes the biosynthesis and release of nitric oxide, which is one of the most potent endogenous vasodilators. Though both primary cilia and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors play important roles in hypertension, their relationship has never been explored. To determine the roles of the cholinergic system and mechanosensory cilia, we studied the effects of acetylcholine receptor modulators on ciliary length and function in wild-type (WT) and mechano-insensitive cilia mutant endothelial cells (Pkd1−/− and Tg737orpk/orpk). Studies from our lab showed for the first time that mouse vascular endothelia exhibit muscarinic receptor-type 1, 3 and 5 (AChM1, 3, and 5R), which co-localizes to primary endothelial cilia. AChM3R activation significantly increases cilia length in cells treated with AChM3R agonist compared to non-treated cells. Furthermore, the chemosensory function of cilia can alter the mechanosensory function through changes in sensitivity to fluid-shear stress. We propose that activated ciliary AChM3R has a functional mechanosensory role in endothelial cells. We propose in the current study that AChM3R antagonist will have the opposite effect and shorten cilia length. This could also diminish cilia sensory function in response to NO production.

Faculty Mentor: Wissam AbouAlaiwi, PhD   Department: Pharmacology and Experiemental Therapeutics - University of Toledo

Raghad Buqaileh

The bacteriophage Adriana, was isolated using the bacterial host Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 in the year 2019. Adriana is a lytic phage and a member of the subcluster B1, which lyse host bacterial cells of the genus Mycobacterium. Escherichi Coli is a Gram- negative bacterium that lives in the lower intestinal tract of certain warmblooded animals, including humans (Jang et al 1). While some strains of E. Coli are a part of a normal intestinal microbiome, others are pathogenic and have the potential to be fatal to humans (Lim et al 2). A study conducted in 2018 noted that Mycobacterium smegmatis is more comparable in volume, ribosome number, and ribosomal density to E. Coli then it is to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis of its own genus (Yamada et al 4). These similarities lead us to believe that Adriana may be effective in lysing E. Coli bacterial cells. Adriana is a tailed phage, and therefore, annotations will likely prove that Adriana contains genes that code for the functional proteins holin and endolysin. Holin makes a hole in the bacterial cell membrane to release the phage progeny, and endolysins help to disrupt the bacterial cell wall after the completion of the lytic cycle. This research works to compare the manual annotations of Adriana and it’s functional proteins to the properties of E. Coli to see if Adriana could be effective in promoting the breakdown of the bacterial cell wall of E. Coli.

Faculty Mentor: Vipaporn Phuntumart, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Sudhan Pachhain, Oluwaseun Oyeniyi Babatunde, Zhaohui Xu

Davis Ellen

College students are exposed to numerous stressors that may inhibit wellbeing. Mindfulness reduces the body’s default to intense sympathetic nervous system responses. This study examines the implications for students enrolled in a semester-long mindfulness course offered during the 2018/2019 academic year at Bowling Green State University (Bowling Green, Ohio). The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire was distributed to students, and blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration rate were measured. Statistical analyses (ANOVAs) indicate there was a decrease in respiration rate for both trials and heart rate for trial 2 (P < 0.05). The facets of non-react and observe increased for both trials while act aware (both trials) and non-judge (trial 2) decreased, respectively (P < 0.05). These results suggest that mindfulness meditation had some positive implications for students who took this course. Recommendations are offered for future studies to further examine the implications of mindfulness meditation practices maintained by college students.

Faculty Mentor: Maria Bidart, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences- Bowling Green State University

Dietrich Mindfulness CURS 2020 

Fifty-nine college females were randomly assigned to complete a yoga class located either indoors or outdoors during summer 2019. Statistical analyses (ANOVAs) indicated that respiration rate, heart rate, and negative affect scores significantly decreased after the yoga class in both environments. Additionally, negative affect was significantly lower outdoors compared to the indoor group.

Faculty Mentor: Maria Bidart, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Dietrich Yoga CURS 2020 

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of chemicals having properties that make them useful in a wide variety of applications, ranging from the production of everyday products to aerospace, automotive, construction, and electronics industries. However, they are also extremely resistant to degradation and so persist in the environment. Moreover, they are bioaccumulative. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to PFAS can lead to adverse human health effects. But there is no description to date as to how these chemicals cause disease. Bacteria have long been used as experimental models to study human disease. Not only has this method been successful historically, it is also much safer and more cost-effective than working with humans directly. This project uses Rhodobacter sphaeroides, a well-studied Gram-negative bacterium, as a model to identify molecular targets of PFAS. Using genetic selections and genomic sequencing a set of genes have been identified, several of which are also present in humans. Evaluating these genes is a multi-step process that involves (i) cloning a copy of the gene from a mutant strain of R. sphaeroides into wild-type R. sphaeroides using transformation and conjugation, and (ii) exposing these newly generated exconjugants to the chemicals in order to determine whether sensitivity correlates with the presence of the cloned gene.

Faculty Mentor: Jill Zeilstra-Ryalls, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Dubasik Noah  

The Tol system plays a key role in protecting gram-negative cells against environmental toxins. The central protein in this system is TolA, which couples the energy derived at the inner, cytoplasmic membrane to proteins in the outer membrane that play roles in maintaining its barrier function. TolA protein serves as a target that certain toxic bacterial proteins, termed “colicins,” and filamentous bacteriophage use to enter the cell. Previous studies had identified TolA as a co-receptor for filamentous enveloped single-stranded DNA bacteriophage that first dock to pilus structures in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae. Working with enveloped single-stranded DNA bacteriophage presents technical challenges that the Larsen lab is not equipped for; however, the lab does do extensive work with non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA bacteriophage from a range of bacterial hosts. I tested over 60 bacteriophages from the lab against an E. coli mutant that contained a deletion of the tolA gene, and identified three bacteriophage that were capable of infecting a wild-type E. coli strain, but not the tolA deletion strain (ΔtolA). From there, I isolated and amplified one of these phage with the intention of identifying the TolA binding site through a series of point mutations to the TolA gene in our E.coli host.

Faculty Mentor: Raymond Larson, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Gara Kristina Larsen

Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacterial host cells. Phages can be lysogenic, incorporating their own genetic material into the host cell, or lytic, resulting in destruction of the host cell. Cyanophages are phages that infect cyanobacteria, which can release the toxins found in harmful algae blooms. These blooms can harm wildlife, disrupt ecosystems, and make water sources undrinkable, encouraging research into cyanobacteria and the means to prevent harmful algae blooms. This study focuses on whether or not the mycobacteriophage Adriana (family Siphoviridae) has the potential to be used similarly to other cyanophages to infect and lyse cyanobacteria. We compared physical and genetic characteristics of Adriana and a cyanosiphovirus. Bioinformatics analysis using DNA Master, PhageDB, Phamerator, and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) will be present. This information is useful because the comparative analysis provided a way to determine Adriana’s potential effectiveness without consuming considerable time and resources. A background of cyanophage characteristics was also developed, which may be utilized in the future to observe how useful a phage may be against cyanobacteria.

Faculty Mentor: Vipaporn Phuntumart, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Sudhan Pachhain, Oluwaseun Oyeniyi Babatunde and Zhaohui Xu

Norman Christina


The goal of this project was to investigate the potential to develop Rhodobacter sphaeroides bacteriophage ɸRsG1.1 as a transduction tool for bacterial genome manipulation. Temperate phage, such as ɸRsG1.1, can carry out both lytic and lysogenic infection cycles, the latter of which involves integrating their own phage genome into the host DNA sequence where it is replicated as the bacteria divide. Molecular biology extensively uses temperate phage in transduction, whereby phage DNA and, on occasion by process imprecision, host DNA is excised from the host and packaged into infectious phage particles. Those phage having host DNA can infect new cells and thereby “transduce” that DNA into the host where it can become part of the chromosome. ɸRsG1.1 was sequenced and annotated to reveal the presence of genes required for lysogeny within the phage genome. During the course of this work, the original host strain used to isolate the phage was also sequenced. Interestingly, some of the phage genes are also present in the host genome. In addition, host range data and structural information through transmission electron microscopy imaging were obtained for ɸRsG1.1. These findings provide avenues that can now be pursued toward gathering the necessary information about the sequence and biology of the only temperate phage that has been isolated for R. sphaeroides, making ɸRsG1.1 currently the only phage with the potential to be developed as a transducing agent.

Faculty Mentor: Jill Zeilstra Ryalls, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Marita Katherine 1  

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a Mycobacterium phage Adriana could be used in the treatment of infections caused by Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These bacteria are responsible for many deaths each year, and treatment with traditional antibiotics is becoming ineffective. Previous studies found that phage TM4 successfully infected and lysed these bacteria. This research focuses on the comparison of genes associated with lytic phage of bacteriophages TM4 and Adriana to conclude the possible effectiveness of Adriana’s use in treating infection caused by Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Specifically, this study examines genes associated with phage adsorption, penetration, and lysis of these two pathogenic Mycobacteria. Bioinformatic analysis using DNA Master, PhagesDB, Phamerator, HHpred and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), will be performed. The results will be presented to further determine Adriana’s effectiveness in treating Mycobacterium infections.

Faculty Mentor: Vipaporn Phuntumart, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Sudhan Pachhain, Oluwaseun Oyeniyi Babatunde, Zhaohui Xu

Roberts Joseph  

We extracted sagitta otoliths from Northern Pike, which were collected from Lake Erie wetlands, using standard methods. After extraction otoliths were embedded in a two-part epoxy, cut, and polished until annuli were visible. The annuli were then counted and used to back-calculate the age and length of the fish, using a linear regression. Most of the fish sampled were in the age class 4 to age class 6. The fish ranged in size from 357mm to 926mm. Also, males and females at age class 1 did not show much difference in size. When average yearly growth rates were compared from the fish sampled in Lake Erie to other lakes in Minnesota and circumpolar lakes, the Lake Erie fish showed a faster, more consistent growth rate.

Faculty Mentor: Jeffrey Miner, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Smith Evan 

Recent research has established a relationship between physiological responses to stress and the gut-associated microbiome and that changes in the makeup of the gut-microbiome may lead to anxiety-like symptomatology. However, work concerning how specific anxiety-related illnesses may influence the microbiome is limited. The purpose of this study was to observe changes in the gut-associated microbiome of Sprague-Dawley rats with induced post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptomatology. We hypothesized that exposure to stress would lead to a significant change in the composition of the gut-microbiome. Male rats were exposed to a well-verified 31-day PTSD paradigm consisting of two exposures to a cat, separated by 10 days, and daily social instability. All rats underwent behavioral testing to assess anxiety-like behavior. DNA was extracted from fecal samples, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene region of bacterial DNA, and terminal fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis was used to assess differences in gut-microbiome composition across treatments. Stress increased anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM), increased startle response, and decreased rearing behavior in the open field. PERMANOVA results suggest significant main and interactive effects of stress group and fecal sample collection timepoint on gut-microbiota composition.

Faculty Mentor: Katherine Krynak, PhD and Phillip Zoladz, PhD   Department: Biological and Allied Health Sciences  - Ohio Northern University

Smith Ian 

Reaction time (RT) is faster in athletes and esport players than non-athletes/competitors; however no comparison has been made between physical athletes and esport players. RT of 18-22 year-old college football athletes, competitive esports players and a control group (N=12) were compared. RT response to visual (Visual Cue, Ruler Drop), auditory (Sound Cue) and tactile (Probe Grabbing) were collected, and average composite RTs was calculated. RTs were compared by ANOVA and post hoc t-tests. The Sound Cue test had significantly slowest RTs (F(140,3)=286.5, p=1.5E-59). Both esport players and football athletes had faster RTs than controls in Probe Grabbing and Ruler Drop (p=0.0175; p=0.0002 and p=0.0016; p=0.0013 respectively). Esport players also had faster RTs in Color Cue than controls (p=0.05). Although esport players and football athletes have faster composite RTs than controls (p=0.0042 and p=0.0104 respectively), RTs between esport players and football players were not significantly different. A trend was seen in that esport players had faster RTs than football athletes in all tests except Probe Grabbing. Involvement in esports or football is associated with faster RT, although it is not demonstrated whether play improves RT or those with inherently faster RTs tend to excel in activities.

Faculty Mentors: Rema Suniga, PhD and Vicki Motz, PhD   Department: Biological and Allied Health Sciences - Ohio Northern University

Decreased Reaction Time in Esport Competitors Equivalent to that of Physical Athletes

Meningitis is a bacterial infection most commonly caused by different strands of the E. coli bacteria. Meningitis is extremely contagious and can affect a person’s spine, brain, along with other parts of the body. Meningitis is currently seen to be treated with the use of antibiotics, but antibiotics seem to be ineffective in some patients. Meningitis causing E. coli has seen to produce CTX-M-15 protein, which causes antibiotics to be ineffective in treatment against meningitis infections. CTX-M-15 proves to be detrimental due to the fact that it is among the most common ESBL producers, or a producer of antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this study is see if the bacteriophage Adriana can be used to combat ESBL producing bacteria in meningitis patients, in order to allow for antibiotic treatment to be effective against the infection. Adriana is a bacteriophage, a subcategory of viruses that can only lysate a bacterial cell. Adriana is classified in the B1 subcluster of bacteriophages as presented by the database of bacteriophages. The methods that will be used will be creating a phylogenetic tree of Adriana and the bacteriophages that have been used in previous ESBL studies. The phages will be annotated by using programs including DNA Master, NCBI blast, and HHPred. The results are not conclusive yet, but there have been no reported subcluster B1 bacteriophage identified to be effective in the past studies. Using bacteriophage therapy will diminish the rate as to antibiotic resistance is formulated in a clinical setting for a multitude of patients, including those who have suffered from meningitis and sepsis.

Faculty Mentor: Vipaporn Phuntumart, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Sudhan Pachhain, Oluwaseun Oyeniyi Babatunde, Zhaohui Xu

HughO Neill Completed Poster

Buruli ulcers (BU) are a result of the bacterial infection Mycobacterium ulcerans. It is the third most common mycobacterial disease, and although it is rare, it is hard to treat or prevent. The use of mycobacteriophage therapy for the treatment of BU is being studied as a potential replacement for current care plans. Previous studies have demonstrated that the mycobacteriophage lipolytic enzyme Lysin B can be effective at degrading the complex mycolylarabinogalactan-peptidoglycan in the cell wall of M. ulcerans. The mycobacteriophage Adriana is a member of the B1 subcluster and was cultivated by the HHMI SEAPHAGES program at Bowling Green State University. The purpose of this study is to determine if Adriana contains the necessary enzymes to be useful in treatment of M. ulcerans. These properties will be investigated by comparing Adriana’s genome to the genome of a phage that has proven successful in treating M. ulcerans. The results have not been determined yet, but initial research has been started. If Adriana’s genome compares positively, then there lies potential for further research on M. ulcerans treatment in humans. If it does not compare positively, there may still be potential for research of Adriana for treatment or prophylaxis of other bacteria.

Faculty Mentor: Vipaporn Phuntumart, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Sudhan Pachhain, Oluwaseun Oyeniyi Babatunde, Zhaohui Xu

Starr MacKenna

Presented here is a review of current literature on the complexity and importance of an issue we are facing around the globe: aluminum contamination in our soil. In application, this type of research is very useful to agricultural companies that are looking for targets for genetic modification that will improve the vitality of their crops. This is especially true for crops that are in areas of high acidity and Aluminum concentration. Scientists are finding ways to make plants less susceptible to the side effects of Aluminum toxicity, which could help to alleviate food scarcities in different parts of the globe. As our global climate continues to change, phenomena such as acid rain and the acidification of our ocean are exacerbating this issue. It is crucial that we work to combat Aluminum toxicity now, and the best way for us to do that is to be aware of the depth of this issue. As far as genetic modification goes, genes involved with polyamine synthesis and function have already been modified to increase tolerance of salinity, drought, high temperatures and low temperatures. With new discoveries being made about Aluminum detoxification genes, we could see more of these genes targeted in the near future.

Faculty Mentor: Paul Morris, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Genetic Mechanisms Mediating Aluminum Toxicity in Plants

* Dresden Wilson CURS Voiceover.m4a
Download Audio File Here.

Dredge materials contain loads of organic matter which leads to high soil fertility, it also has a high-water holding capacity, which makes using the material for agricultural purposes an interest of study. Instead of dumping the dredge materials taken from Lake Erie back in the lake, it could have a beneficial use in agriculture. The dredge material has beneficial characteristics as well as negative ones such as harmful metals or inorganics that could end up in the runoff or into the crops planted on the dredge material. Dredge material from Lake Erie has been placed on two fields to test its effects on planted corn, if contaminants will be absorbed by the corn, another small part of the research is if the contaminants from the dredge could end up in the ground/surface water and back to Lake Erie. To create an artificial rain event to test the contaminants within the runoff, nine five-gallon buckets, with a whole and mesh lining the bottom, were filled with dredge. three buckets had dredge from the first field, three with dredge from the second field, and three with control dirt from another local field. There were six runoff events where 1.3L of artificial rainwater was spread on each bucket of dredge. Beakers were placed under each bucket to collect the runoff, which was placed in Erlenmeyer flasks and stored until samples were sent off to be analyzed. Nutrient data are the only results we have gotten back and will be presented in the poster.

Faculty Mentor: Louise Stevenson, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Gwyneth Nelson, Eric Hibbets

wygantCURS poster


Studies on exciton migration and charge transfer in nucleic acids are important for understanding the mechanisms and paths of photochemical reactions leading to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. The identification of the mechanisms, efficiencies, rate constants and localization sites for energy migration and charge transport in cytosine (C) polymers has received much less attention in previous studies in comparison to thymine (T), guanine (G), and adenine (A) DNA components. Determining the very initial photoprocesses that lead to photochemical lesions followed by carcinogenesis will contribute towards a better understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to photodamage caused by the UV radiation and the ways of desensibilization of harmful effects caused by UV radiation at a molecular level. As the first step towards investigating cytosine polymers, we re-visited the ultrafast photophysics and photochemistry of cytosine monomers. It is known that cytosine parts of the DNA can easily make double helix through non-canonical pairing mediated by protons, which causes formation of hairpins, duplexes and i-motif structures for both short and long oligonucleotides.This allows controlling DNA conformation in homo oligonucleotide solutions and studying how the conformation impacts the excited-state properties. As the second step, our specific target is cytosine oligomers, i-motif fold of (dCp)10. This fold is formed via self-complexation as the result of base-stacking interactions under the conditions of mild pH.

Faculty Mentor: Alexander Tarnovsky, PhD   Department: Chemistry - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Laura Obloy and Darya Budkina

Arnold Chandler

Numerous biological processes rely on a phosphorylation and controlled hydrolysis of phosphates. Metabolism of sugars and lipids as well as nucleic acids are few examples that represent the most important roles of phosphate ions in living organisms. For this reason, sensors capable of distinguishing among phosphorylated species while providing clearly detectable signal output are important. The goal of this project is to develop supramolecular sensors for phosphate-type anions, capable of discriminating and quantifying phosphates such as dihydrogen phosphate, pyrophosphate (PPi), as well as nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates and monophosphates as markers of metabolic processes.

Faculty Mentor: Pavel Anzenbacher, PhD   Department: Chemistry - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Andrej Penavic

Gevedon Ethan

The polymerization of lactones is a common method to produce polyesters, which have many applications in industry. However, achieving efficient polymerization with minimal byproducts and high molecular weight often requires a catalyst. Catalysts that have been used for the ring-opening polymerization of lactones include metal complexes, frustrated lewis pair catalysts, and some acid catalysts. Unfortunately, many of these suffer from toxicity and high costs. Recently, a series of anionic urea catalysts have been synthesized and used to successfully polymerize a series of lactones. These catalysts can achieve high conversions with narrow molecular weight distributions quickly and at room temperatures. We are computationally probing the reactive mechanism of these catalysts using Density Functional Theory (DFT) to understand what properties lead to successful polymerization. Herein, we present an analysis of the catalytic cycle for these catalysts and an analysis of electronic and steric differences between the catalysts and their effect on reactivity. We also propose new catalysts in this class based on the steric and electronic requirements discovered in this study. Lin, B.; Waymouth, R. M. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2017, 139, 1645-1652.

Faculty Mentor: Trilisa Perrine, PhD   Department: Chemistry and Biochemistry - Ohio Northern University

Powell Samuel 

Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are membrane proteins with a single transmembrane domain (TMD) at the very C-terminus of the protein. The unique topology of TA proteins requires post-translational insertion into membranes. When insertion fails, TA proteins must be quickly triaged to prevent the formation of potentially toxic aggregates. In collaboration with the Hegde Lab, we recently showed that ubiquilins are molecular chaperones that triage mitochondrial TA proteins. Humans have three widely expressed ubiquilins (UBQLN 1, 2 & 4). Ubiquilins are often enriched in the protein aggregates that characterize many neurodegenerative diseases, and ubiquilin mutants have been strongly associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. It was recently shown that UBQLN1 recruits an E3 ligase to facilitate the degradation of uninserted mitochondrial TA proteins. However, the identity of the E3 ligase is unknown. Similarly, it is unclear if UBQLN2 & UBQLN4 also recruit E3 ligases. We are using an in vitro translation system to test for E3 ligase recruitment by UBQLN2 and UBQLN4. We will then use pull downs and mass spectrometry to identify the E3 ligase(s) recruited by these ubiquilins.

Faculty Mentor: Matthew Wohlever, PhD   Department: Chemistry & Biochemistry - The University of Toledo

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Robert J. Keenan and Ramanujan Hegde

Scheutzow Ashley

Structural violence can be defined as systematic ways in which social structures harm or otherwise disadvantage individuals and usually has no specific person who can be held responsible. Over winter break, BGSU student Clare Sunderman went to Cusco, Peru with MEDLIFE and observed healthcare in Peru. Before the trip, she was interested in identifying the differences in medical practices in Peru compared to the U.S. She learned how those in more rural areas were at a steeper disadvantage to access healthcare compared to those in populated cities because of travel needed to get to clinics and cost of clinic. Over the 10 day trip, Clare saw inequality in terms of language, economics, gender, and geography and how all of these play a role in health disparities. Clare will discuss how these four factors play a role in structural violence in terms of Healthcare in Peru.

Faculty Mentor: Robert Midden, PhD   Department: Chemistry - Bowling Green State University

Healthcare and Structural Violence

A narrated powerpoint presentation by Clare Sunderman on "Healthcare and Structural Violence"

* Healthcare and Structural Violence.pptx
Download the full powerpoint, with notes, here.

Computer Science

Digital forensic tools are used for post-mortem investigation of cyber-crimes and cyber-attacks both in corporate and government organizations. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)’s Computer Forensics Tool Testing Program (CFTT) established standards for digital forensic tools to help determine the quality and integrity of such tools. The quality and integrity of these tools are especially important in judicial proceedings. Using a forensic tool that does not follow the standards may cause evidence to be thrown out in court cases (which are increasingly reliant on digital data). Consequently, incorrect results from a forensic tool can also lead improper prosecution of an innocent defendant. The focus of our research is about standardization of one class of forensic tools that are used for Deleted File Recovery (DFR).

Faculty Mentor: Sankardas Roy, PhD   Department: Computer Science - Bowling Green State University

Meyer Currier 

File carving tools are used in the recovery of deleted files from digital devices. When law enforcement (e.g., FBI) seizes digital devices, analysts are interested in recovering deleted files from the devices. With many file carving tools available in the market, it is important to evaluate the tools based on NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology) standards to make sure forensics artifacts are admissible in a court of law. The aim was to find out (1). Do the popular file carving tools (in the market) meet the NIST CFTT (Computer Forensic Tool Testing) standards? If not, which tool meets which part of the standard? What factors make the tools fail? (2). Are the free file carving tools more effective compared to the proprietary tools? The file carving tools were evaluated by generating different test cases which involved different file types and the deleting of files in different states. No tool was able to fully meet all the standards but some did perform better than others. Factors which made them fail were the signatures used by the tools to carve out the content. The proprietary tool wasn't more effective compared to the free tools. Therefore, meeting all NIST standards prove to be hard for the file carving tools to do and the solution might be to make the standards less strict or use an alternative way to recover deleted files.

Faculty Mentor: Sankardas Roy, PhD   Department: Computer Science - Bowling Green State University

Tenga Jasper


With our world becoming increasingly globalized and cosmopolitan, practices that were once very traditional and spiritual are much different when they confront Western societies. Yoga instructors and practitioners around the world are concerned about the issue of cultural appropriation within their practice. I define cultural appropriation to mean the process of a dominant culture manipulating aspects of a marginalized culture for its benefit. Traditionally, yoga comes from India, but it has become popularized throughout the world in our recent human history. Through interviews with ten different yoga instructors, each from different yogic traditions, who teach in a variety of Western cultures, I draw a conclusion about whether or in what ways Western yoga is cultural appropriation of traditional yoga. Given these instructors’ vast backgrounds and experiences with yoga and their relationships to India, I also incorporate the limited published research already available on this issue. I offer suggestions for how those who practice yoga in Western societies can try to reduce signs of cultural appropriation. By evaluating cosmopolitan, historical, and sociological perspectives on this issue, I will be able to offer an informed interdisciplinary conclusion about the cultural appropriation involved in contemporary yoga practices.

Faculty Mentor: Amanda Rzicznek, PhD   Department: English - Bowling Green State University

Faculty Mentor: Abhishek Bhati, PhD   Department: Political Science - Bowling Green State University

Bartholomew Olive

Genetics With Nettie and Friends: an Exploration of Genetics in Children's Literature examines the role that genetics can have on empathy development in children through the use of children's literature. This involved the creation, construction, and publication of a 36 page children's book on Barnes and Noble. This book explains the genetics behind Down Syndrome, Williams Syndrome, and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, as well as encourages the idea that atypically developed children are not so different from typically developed children. This presentation explains why each disorder was specifically chosen, why they are presented the way they are in the book, and the illustration process from drafting to the final product.

Faculty Mentor: Amanda McGuire-Rzicznek  Department: English - Bowling Green State University

Faculty Mentor: Vipaporn Phuntumart, PhD   Department: Biological Sciences

Genetics With Nettie and Friends: an Exploration of Genetics in Children's Literature

* Genetics With Nettie and Friends: an Exploration of Genetics in Children's Literature.pptx
Download the PowerPoint Presentation with Audio Narration Here.

In the detective fiction genre, Nancy Drew is one of its most iconic sleuths, as she is cleverly named the “girl detective.” Originally created in 1930, Nancy Drew served as an inspirational figure for young girls and women across generations, as her intelligence and resourcefulness allowed her to challenge traditional gender roles for women as well as solve complicated mysteries. With the rise of the women’s rights movement and in the 1960s, many aspired to attain Nancy Drew’s independence and subvert the patriarchy, breaking the glass ceiling that held them down in the role of the submissive housewife. The second wave feminist perspective, however, was that all women experience sexism in the same ways, falsely equating the middle-class white women’s experience to that of minorities and the working class. Despite being labeled a feminist icon, role model, and having the series adapted into comic books, movies, and television shows, the original Nancy Drew exhibits character flaws that make her controversial. “Nancy Drew: A Feminist Icon or a Problematic Figure of the Patriarchy and White Privilege” critiques why Nancy Drew is considered a feminist, and examines how unacknowledged elements of racism, classism, and traditional notions of femininity are problematic and prevent her from being a fully feminist character. This type of character analysis focusing on diversity is key to the ongoing discussion on campus and abroad about inclusion and gender in literature, film, and television.

Faculty Mentor: Jay Jones   Department: English - Bowling Green State University

Dispositions, also referred to as habits of mind, are attitudes students have toward learning. Costa and Kallick (2012) identify several disposition frameworks important learning, including their 16 Habits of Mind, which include listening and understanding with empathy, flexible thinking, and thinking interdependently. The Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing (2011) identifies eight habits of mind specifically for learning to write, such as creative, openness, and curiosity. Recently, Driscoll and Wells (2012) have identified four dispositions—value, attribution, self-efficacy, and self-regulation—important to writing transfer.   Working with Dr. Neil Baird and four other graduate students, I designed a survey study to learn about a range of dispositions that dual credit, undergraduate, and graduate students have toward writing. This survey was also designed to discover what made writing both enjoyable or challenging to each individual to determine any motifs between each population of students. 

Faculty Mentor: Neil Baird, PhD   Department: English - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Emma Guthrie, Travis Hein, Morgan McDougall and Brian Urias

Student Attitudes Towards Writing

* Student Attitudes Towards Writing- PowerPoint.pptx
Download the presentation, with speaker notes, here.
* Student Attitudes Towards Writing- Narrative.docx
Download just the narrative here.

Uses of medieval tropes have defined certain political movements and strategies since approximately 900 to the present day. While medieval concepts are used as a means for the general public to understand emerging global political institutions, they also have immense capability to be purposely misused by political groups due to the generally vague and misguided understanding of such medieval concepts by the masses. At one core of these movements is the Vikings, and the misrepresentation of their history by oppressive political groups in order to push a fictitious agenda of a prosperous, all-white race of seafaring warriors. In my presentation, I explore what it is about the Vikings – or possibly Old Norse religious imagery as a whole – that is appealing white supremacist political groups. What can be done to rescue the true history of the Vikings from these groups? Furthermore, what does this growing correlation between the Vikings, fascism, and white supremacy mean for the future of the field of Viking and Medieval Norse Studies?

Faculty Mentor: Erin Labbie, PhD   Department: English - Bowling Green State University

No Nazis in Valhalla: Understanding the Use of Old Norse Religious Imagery by Oppressive Political Groups throughout History

The seminar is based on four lenses of ecocriticism: affective ecocriticism, queer ecology, cultural ecology, and eco-feminism. Students will be reading the first, fifth, and seventh books in the Harry Potter series. The Harry Potter series, though not traditionally studied as a work of environmental fiction, can be analyzed through ecocriticism in order to create conversations of the environment disengaged from the bipartisan nature of current environmental discussions. This presentation will include the methods, background research, and format of the seminar. It will include a discussion of the ideation and development process, from attending conferences to presenting at a conference. It will also include prelimary findings of the environmental problems students have connected to the Harry Potter series. This seminar reinforces the power an honors education has to open doors and provide meaningful experiences for undergraduate students in various academic and professional areas. 

Faculty Mentor: Heath Diehl, PhD   Department: English - Honors College - Bowling Green State University

Harry Potter as a Discussion of Environmental Harm and Protection


Costa Rica is a frontier nation that began as a colony much like America, but its development is radically different. Internationally, Costa Rica’s national parks have a reputation as equatorial paradises to which people can flock to for an interesting getaway. The incredible biodiversity and natural beauty which Costa Rica harbor have been maintained despite development in the relatively small country. The popularity of ecotourism in Costa Rica may be one explanation of their commitment to restoration and conservation. However, its unlikely ecotourism started their trend effective conservation and restoration policies since they had to recover from a period of major deforestation in the mid 1900s to reach the reputation they now have as a major site of ecotourism. What then put Costa Rica onto a path committed to restoring and maintaining their ecosystems? By combining analysis of policy goals and implementations across the various regions of Costa Rica with first hand testimonies from people involved in and affected by reforestation efforts I’ll be able to construct a clear image about how Costa Rican’s view their relationship to their environment and what compromises they are willing to make to support ecosystem health. Gaining an understanding of how their culture influences their environmental policy could be used as a framework on how to implement conservation and restoration policies in other regions of the world.

Faculty Mentors: Scott Martin, PhD and Lara Martin-Lengel, PhD   Department: History - Bowling Green State University

Jason George  

In the context of the Anthropocene, it is becoming increasingly important to minimize human impact on the land and foster a relationship of reciprocity and respect. A fundamental aspect of this relationship to the land/natural world is the ability to listen. Being in close relationship to the land leads to the ability to listen and hear the land speak. We can be in communication with the land if we have a relationship to it.  What is the role of the land in our lives? What is our role in fostering a relationship to the land? This project seeks to answer these questions through oral histories of people in northwest Ohio who have the closest relationships to the land. This project will add to the growing field of telling history from the narratives of people who were there during the events being studied. The presentation will include excerpts from several of the interviews and a discussion of what benefits oral history provides to the field of environmental history and to public environmental movements.

Faculty Mentor: Amilcar Challu, PhD   Department: History - Bowling Green State University

Listening and Learning: Lessons from the Land

* Listening and Learning: Lessons from the Land.pptx
Download the PowerPoint Presentation Here.

Mathematics and Statistics

Media coverage from the top 5 newspapers for the 2018 Ohio Gubernatorial Race is analyzed through various different meausures.  The hypotheses regarding these measures are tested to analyze if the newspaper media shows greater coverage towards the winner, Mike DeWine.  From these results, we can see if it is possible to predict the next winner for governor based on the coverage within the newspaper media in Ohio.

Faculty Mentor: James Albert, PhD   Department: Mathematics and Statistics - Bowling Green State University

Can We Predict the Next Governor of Ohio?

Cropland conversion to other land cover types is often irreversible. Since existing cropland is typically well-suited for growing crops, replacing cropland lost to development by converting other land cover types may result in less intensive agricultural production. Therefore, it is important to monitor the impact of land development activities on the agricultural sector. The Black Swamp Conservancy is “a land trust dedicated to protecting the agricultural land and natural areas, now and for future generations.” Existing reports on national land cover trends do not provide a fine enough level of aggregation for the organization’s planning needs. The purpose of this project was to describe and visualize land cover change and spatial distribution within the Black Swamp Conservancy’s sixteen county service area in Northwest Ohio and to find a list of factors associated with land cover change in the region. The primary datasource was the National Land Cover Database 2016 published by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium, which includes 30m x 30m land cover maps of the contiguous U.S for 2-3 year intervals from 2001 and 2016. One important finding from this project was that most of the 6.64% increase in developed land in 2016 relative to the area of developed land in 2001 occurred in Lucas, Wood, and Hancock counties. Another important result was that the dominant land conversion types within the service area were from cultivated crops to development and hay/pasture to cultivated crops.

Faculty Mentor: James Albert, PhD   Department: Mathematics & Statistics - Bowling Green State University

Statistical Analysis of Land Cover Conversion in Northwest Ohio

* Land Cover Conversion.pptx
Download Powerpoint with audio here.


Abstract ​Building on preliminary field research in Costa Rica and Belize, this honors project will compare and contrast the success rates of environmental and endangered animal protection rights in Belize, Costa Rica, and Puerto Rico, and assess the impact of veterinary science and biological research and practice, particularly conservation biology, on animal welfare concerns. The project will analyze the need new and innovative types of collaboration, particularly involving science, global trade, and technology experts is needed to save endangered and critically endangered species, not only in Central America and the Caribbean, but worldwide

Faculty Mentor: Justin Honhauser, PhD   Department: Philosophy - Bowling Green State University

DaniellaFedak Lengel CURS April poster final 

Physics and Astronomy

By using game-based learning and other techniques to provide a more interactive experience in distance learning, educators have the potential to offer interactive experiences to hundreds of students in online distance courses. These experiences offer a real and tangible benefit beyond what is currently done with video calls and Learning Management Systems as it offers greater interactivity to each student and provides an element of gamification.

Faculty Mentor: Eric Mandell, PhD   Department: Physics and Astronomy - Bowling Green State University

Brickner Maxwell Poster 2 of 2 

Story based learning and game based learning are educational techniques that are finding increasing use in electronic learning environments. As institutions are moving to distance learning through electronic learning platforms to reach non-traditional students, potential first generation college students, and other demographics, the improvement of these techniques is critical to fostering a better learning experience that better prepares these students for further education and for the field.

Faculty Mentor: Eric Mandell, PhD   Department: Physics & Astronomy - Bowling Green State University

Brickner Maxwell Poster 1 of 2 

In our project, we focused on the synthesis of PbS nanosheets. With current synthesis methods, the chemical yield is just under ten percent. Our project worked a method of improving the yield of nanosheets during our synthesis. This method involved using the supernatants for syntheses after the initial synthesis. This method is helpful for future research for the improvement of nanomaterial synthesis.

Faculty Mentor: Liangfeng Sun, PhD   Department: Physics & Astronomy - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Tharaka Weeraddana

AbygailCollert Winter CURS 2019 2020 1

This project focused on the spectroscopic side of lead sulfide nanosheets. This project’s main goal is to gain a better understanding of the excitonic physics present in PbS nanosheets. Having a better understanding of the excitonic properties will allow for a more precise use in photovoltaics, optical communications, and other applications. We created the PbS nanosheets in our chemical lab using methods previously discovered. Once created we probed into the excitonic process by taking measurements of photoluminescence and absorption. We also confirmed the creation of nanosheets through transition electron microscope images and measured the lateral size with an x-ray powdered diffraction machine.

Faculty Mentor: Liangfeng Sun, PhD   Department: Physics & Astronomy - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Tharaka MDS Weeraddana

Fox Jordan Poster 4 of 4

This project focused on finding the giant oscillator strength transition (GOST) of lead sulfide nanosheets. Finding the GOST of the PbS nanosheets will allow for more use in applications like light-emitting diodes and optical communications. Our lab synthesized PbS nanosheets using methods previously discovered. Once created, the nanosheets were then put through different methods of discovering the GOST. These methods included testing the lifetime in multiple ways. First was measured the lifetime after one day, the second was treating the nanosheets with trioctylphosphine and last we lowered the temperature of the nanosheet. After the lifetime was measured, we measured photoluminescence at low temperatures.

Faculty Mentor: Liangfeng Sun, PhD   Department: Physics & Astronomy - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Yiteng Tang

Fox Jordan Poster 3 of 4

This project focused on creating highly efficient low-cost infrared light emitting diodes using synthesized lead sulfide nanosheets. Previously discovered synthetization methods allowed for the creation of these lead sulfide nanosheets. Once synthesized the nanosheets were placed on a commercial light emitting diode and had its optical properties measured. Creating these highly efficient low-cost infrared light emitting diodes will allow for applications in optical communication, remote sensing, and night vision.

Faculty Mentor: Liangfeng Sun, PhD   Department: Physics & Astronomy - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Yiteng Tang

Fox Jordan Poster 1 of 4

This project focused on creating a new type of nanosheet called lead chloride nanosheet. Completion of this new nanosheet will allow for further study into the creation of nanosheets and possibly better quantum yields. In this project, we created lead chloride nanosheets using synthetization methods previously discovered. Once created the new nanosheets had their thickness, image, and optical properties gathered by using an x-ray powdered diffraction machine, transition electron microscope, and our optical lab respectively.

Faculty Mentor: Liangfeng Sun, PhD   Department: Physics & Astronomy - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Yiteng Tang

Fox Jordan Poster 2 of 4

We've found many results through thermoluminescence measurements for Ga2O3, Fe-Doped Ga2O3, Tin-Doped Ga2O3, as well as the effects of annealing Ga2O3 in air and in argon.

Faculty Mentor: Farida Selim, PhD   Department: Physics and Astronomy - Bowling Green State University

Deposition of Ga2O3 films for high power electronics

* Deposition of Ga203 films for high power electronics narration.pptx
Download Presentation with Narrative Notes Here.

Political Science

In the context of post-communist Romania, my central research question focuses on the following issue: To what extent has the secondary public education curriculum in Romania after 1989 integrated questions of globalization, global citizenship and common global challenges and its consequences and opportunities for Romania? Romania provides an interesting case of a post-communist transition country due to the rather rigid and isolated nature of the communist regime under longtime dictator Ceausescu as well as its still unresolved transition path towards a liberal democracy and market economy, despite its EU-membership since 2007.  Moreover, it is a multi-ethnic country with still significant Hungarian minorities as well as large numbers of Roma and Sinti.  

Faculty Mentor: Stefan Fritsch, PhD   Department: Political Science - Bowling Green State University

Do students from post secondary school have access to notions of global citizenship in post communist nations? the case of Romania

Christian church policy can be nuanced and unclear to a first-time visitor of a congregation. Some policies are harmful or detrimental to certain groups such as women, divorced people, or the LGBT community. This study particularly looks at the policies and procedures churches have in respect to LGBT participation in church life with the working thesis stating that all Christian churches have policies and procedures that are either inclusive or exclusive to LGBT people that can be predicted by denomination as well as other factors and should clearly be disclosed do minimize harm done to LGBT people. Research has suggested that Christian denominations are divided on political lines as well as theological tradition. The data used in this study comes from the National Congregations Study. The hypotheses included predicting how nondenominational Christian churches included or excluded LGBT people compared to other denominations. Data was cross tabulated, and the chi squares were analyzed to find that denomination plays a statistically significant role in determining LGBT inclusion policy and evangelical churches are more likely to be exclusive in most cases compared to nondenominational Christian churches. This study is important as it illustrates denominational influence on the political issue of LGBT rights and advance academic knowledge of this topic.

Faculty Mentor: Melissa Miller, PhD   Department: Political Science - Bowling Green State University

Open and Unaffirming: Churches and LGBT Inclusion Policy

* Open and Unaffirming Presentation.pptx
Download the powerpoint here.


Amblypygids (whip spiders) have only recently captured the attention of biologists and animal behavior researchers. These arachnids have demonstrated remarkable navigational skills that scientists have only recently begun to understand. Like other arachnids, amblypygids are an order of arthropods which, like other arachnids, have eight legs; however, they only use six legs for locomotion. Their front pair of legs have evolved to serve an antennae-like function, providing the animal with sensory information about their environment (Foelix and Hebets, 2001). These whip-like antenniform legs allow amblypygids to gather tactile and chemical cues from its surroundings ( Interestingly, these animals also show strong fidelity to a home shelter for extended periods of time, and although they leave these refuges to search for food at night, they successfully navigate through complex tropical and subtropical substrate and return home after each trip (Hebets, 2002). In field studies, whip spiders successfully navigate home after displacement of more than eight meters and often take irregular, non-linear paths home (Hebets et al., 2013). Although many arthropods display impressive navigation capabilities, most employ strategies such as path integration, which is difficult in complex, three dimensional environments like a rainforest understory. Additionally, in laboratory studies, Graving et al. (2017) showed that the whip spider species Phrynus marginemaculatus also show fidelity to an artificial shelter and take longer, often circuitous routes back home to their shelter compared to their outbound routes. This suggests that path integration is likely not a navigational mechanism that amblypygids employ to get back to their shelters. Recent research suggests that whip spiders' use of olfactory cues is essential to their impressive navigational abilities (Bingman et al., 2017). Indeed, Bingman et al. (2017) experimentally displaced subjects were often found on the trunks of non-home trees at night before returning home and hypothesized that "climbing trees could be a behavioral mechanism that facilitates detection of olfactory cues hypothetically useful for navigation" (Bingman et al., 2017). Whip spiders may climb trees in order to detect airborne odor plumes that originate at their home shelter. In order to make use of these plumes to successfully navigate, whip spiders must therefore display sensitivity to a scent gradient, recognizing that as they travel up an odor plume and toward its source, the odor becomes stronger. While this study failed to find significant differences in navigational abilities between animals exposed to a conditioned scent gradient and a control, encouraging trends were found, and further experimentation with improved wind tunnel design and more sophisticated data collection methods may yield significant results.

Faculty Mentor: Verner Bingman, PhD   Department: Psychology - Bowling Green State University

NathanBostelman CURS Winter 2019 Poster 

Few pharmacological agents effectively treat the array of symptoms involved in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). SSRIs are the most commonly prescribed medication for PTSD, but they lead to remission rates of barely 50% and take weeks to months before producing symptom relief. Therefore, we examined the impact of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has rapid antidepressant effects, on PTSD-like symptom development in rats exposed to a predator-based psychosocial stress model of PTSD. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to psychosocial stress for 31 days. The psychosocial stress procedure involved two separate cat exposures and daily social instability. Immediately after the first cat exposure, rats were given intraperitoneal injections of ketamine (15 mg/kg) or vehicle. Three weeks following the second cat exposure, the rats were tested for symptoms of anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field; we also assessed rats’ hyperarousal by examining their baseline startle responses. Data collection is still in progress, but preliminary results suggest that ketamine reduced anxiety on the EPM and in the open field in psychosocially stressed males. These and the ensuing results in females will be discussed.

Faculty Mentor: Phillip Zoladz, PhD   Department: Psychology - Ohio Northern University

Del Valle Goodman Smith Elmouhawesse Dodson Hepp 

Traumatic events are frequently accompanied by alcohol use, and although some research has shown that alcohol increases intrusive memory formation in healthy subjects, limited work has examined the impact of alcohol on the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, there has been no work experimentally testing the influence of alcohol on PTSD-like symptoms in animal models. Thus, we examined the effects of alcohol on the development of PTSD-like symptoms in rats exposed to a predator-based model of traumatic stress. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of alcohol (1.5 g/kg) or vehicle (water) 30 minutes before being exposed to an adult, female cat for 1 hr. One week later, the rats were tested for symptoms of anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. We also assessed rats’ hyperarousal by examining their baseline startle responses. According to the results, males, but not females, that were treated with alcohol prior to stress displayed significantly greater anxiety and larger startle responses than rats treated with vehicle before stress. These findings suggest that peri-traumatic alcohol ingestion could increase the risk of developing PTSD, at least in males.

Faculty Mentor: Phillip Zoladz, PhD   Department: Psychology - Ohio Northern University

Goodman Smith Dodson Elmouhawesse Del Valle Hepp 

Why does time seem to speed up as we get older? It may be that novel events require encoding more information and are therefore experienced as longer in duration than non-novel events, for which we encode only the gist. As such, as we get older and have experienced similar events numerous times, time appears to be moving subjectively more quickly than when we were younger. In this study, we asked if the novelty of an event affects our perceived duration of that event. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. Participants in both conditions watched six video clips. In the control condition each video, including the target video, was displayed one time. In the experimental condition, the target clip was displayed three times, randomly interspersed with clips from the control condition. The duration of the clip was hidden from the participant and the screen automatically advanced after the clip had played. After viewing the clips, the participants made two judgments of how long the target video lasted and their confidence in their judgments. First, they indicated how long they felt the target video lasted in seconds. Next, they indicated how long they felt it lasted using a Likert scale (with “1” indicating it lasted for a very short amount of time and “7” indicating it lasted a very long amount of time). We discuss our findings in relation to the subjective perception of time.

Faculty Mentor: Jared Branch, PhD   Department: Psychology - Bowling Green State University

Green Brayden

Gun carrying is a harrowing commonality among adolescents that inspires violence and can greatly impact the rest of their lives if no precautionary system is in place to help them. The importance of studying gun carrying and its correlates is to inform effective prevention and intervention programs for gun carrying and crime in adolescents. The data set we analyzed came from the Pathways to Desistance study which consists of 1354 participants of adolescent criminal offenders from Philadelphia and Phoenix who were interviewed 11 times across a period of seven years. Extending on present research and data analysis, we considered gun carrying and its temporal association with mental health and behavioral traits including anxiety, depression, impulse control, future orientation, antisocial behavior, hostility, and psychological distress. We hypothesize that these mental health factors and other attributes proceed gun carrying behavior, as youth high on these characteristics are more likely to consider carrying a gun as well as participate in dangerous and illegal behavior. In addition, these characteristics likely follow gun carrying behaviors as individuals experience heightened emotions related to behaviors that may be concurrent with gun carrying (e.g., gang involvement, violence perpetration or victimization). We used gun carrying during the second interview and mental and behavioral characteristics at the first five interviews to consider the implication between reports of carrying a gun as well as ratings on inventories of each correlate to establish which factors likely originate before or following an individual's decision to carry a gun. Preliminary results suggest hostility, impulse control, and antisocial behavior were significant following initiation of gun carrying while all factors excluding depression were significantly present at the same time period as reported gun carrying. Following the initiation of carrying a gun, we saw a substantial presence of hostility, impulse control, and antisocial behavior again as well as future orientation and psychological distress.

Faculty Mentor: Meagan Docherty, PhD   Department: Psychology - Bowling Green State University

The Temporal Ordering of Common Gun Carrying Correlates in Adolescent Criminal Offenders

The purpose of this research study was to observe the possible interaction among our two variables, which included mental fatigue and perceived health of foods. The research question we aimed to answer was if mental fatigue had an influence on the perceived health of foods and if socioeconomic (SES) moderated this relationship in question. Our independent variables are the level of mental fatigue, as well as socioeconomic status to act as a moderator. We operationalized mental fatigue as being a sociobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity (Marcora et al, 2009). Our dependent variable is one’s perceived health of foods, experimental groups being divided by mentally fatigued and not mentally fatigued, as well as sub-sectioned off by high SES, middle SES, and low SES. We also analyzed demographic information such as age, gender, marital status, race/ethnicity, education, employment, etc. We hypothesized that participants who displayed mental fatigue would rate unhealthy foods as being healthy, more so than participants who are not mentally fatigued.

Faculty Mentor: Dara Musher-Eizenman, PhD   Department: Psychology - Bowling Green State University

hofler CURS poster Freyja Hofler 

The general consensus in America today is that we are more politically divided than ever. If this is true, understanding how politics, and our particularly divisive political climate, affects workers and their stress at work becomes vitally important. Stress at work had been found again and again to have negative effects on the health of workers. This study among 225 individuals used a uniquely developed measures of pollical prejudice in the workplace to examine the effects of politically motivated incivility and harassment. Specifically, this measure will be used to determine whether incidents of pollical prejudice in the workplace are frequent or infrequent, whether the frequency of political prejudice incidents vary by participant’s pollical ideology, and whether experiencing pollical prejudice affects employees’ stress, turnover intentions, coworker satisfaction, and positive/negative affectivity. Our main analysis will be the correlation between experienced incivility and turnover intentions, stress, and satisfaction.

Faculty Mentor: Michael Zickar, PhD   Department: Psychology - Bowling Green State University

Additional Contributors: Emily Brown, Richard Mendelson, PhD

PPWQ Poster 

People with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit numerous physiological alterations, including lower baseline cortisol levels, enhanced negative feedback of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, increased noradrenergic activity, and reduced serotonergic activity. Male rats exposed to a predator-based psychosocial stress model of PTSD exhibit similar changes in HPA axis function and neurotransmission. Here, we examined whether similar effects would be observed in female rats exposed to this model. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a cat on two occasions, separated by 10 days, in conjunction with daily social instability. Three weeks following the second cat exposure, we examined rats’ anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze (EPM), collected blood samples at baseline and following dexamethasone administration to quantify corticosterone levels, and extracted brains to quantify markers of noradrenergic and serotonergic activity in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Stressed females did not exhibit heightened anxiety on the EPM, but, relative to controls, they displayed lower corticosterone levels and a greater suppression of corticosterone following dexamethasone administration. Stressed females also exhibited increased markers of noradrenergic activity in the dorsal hippocampus and PFC. These findings suggest that this model of PTSD may be useful for studying mechanisms underlying trauma-induced changes in female physiology.

Faculty Mentors: Phillip Zoladz, PhD and Boyd Rorabaugh, PhD  Department: Psychology - Ohio Northern University

Smith Goodman Elmouhawesse Dodson Del Valle Hepp

Incentive contrast effects occur when reward values change from previous experience and comparisons are made between the previous and current value. The value reupdating depends on the relative outcomes that are comparable. These effects will impair or facilitate motivation even with exposure to the identical reward depending upon the differences between previous and current experiences. Studies have been done to examine the incentive contrast effects using extrinsic rewards, such as money and points. However, no studies have been done to investigate if intrinsic rewards can induce incentive contrast effects in humans and in general, how brain oscillations change related to incentive contrast effects. In order to address these questions, two studies were conducted using a game playing model. In study 1, 40 participants were recruited and randomly assigned into four groups to play a set of games with 3 trials according to a specific procedure. The scores the participants earned in each trial were recorded and a set of questionnaires was filled out to assess the emotional, motivational, and stress level of the participants after each trial. We predicted that the order of exposure to the level of difficulty of the game would make a significant difference in the measures obtained. Specifically, we hypothesized that the performance of game playing would be enhanced in the easier-level immediately preceded by the difficult-level (positive contrast) and impaired in the difficult-level when preceded by an easier-level (negative contrast). . Moreover, the more positive emotional response would lead to better performance, while negative emotion would result in bad performance. In study 2, brain oscillations were recorded at Fz and Cz sites after each session of game playing. We hypothesized that the power of beta oscillation would increase in positive incentive contrast, while the power of theta oscillation would increase in negative incentive contrast. Furthermore, we believe the theta/beta ratio would decrease in positive incentive contrast and increase in negative incentive contrast. These explorative studies will broaden the research of incentive contrast effects to intrinsic reward and provide some new insights into the brain mechanism of incentive contrast effects.

Faculty Mentor: Howard Cromwell, PhD   Department: Psychology - Bowling Green State University

Incentive Contrast in Humans: Behavioural and Electroencephalographic Measures

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Victimization, as one of the heteronormative social and environmental stress factors, greatly compromises sexual minority individuals’ mental health quality (Brooks, 1981; Cochran, 2001; DiPlacido, 1998; Krieger & Sidney, 1997; Mays & Cochran, 2001; Meyer, 1995). While individuals can be victimized because of their LGBTQ+ identities, they can be also victimized because of their racial/ ethnic identities. Intersectionality theory suggests that the interaction between race and sexuality engenders unique experiences (Cho, Crenshaw, & McCall, 2013). For example, the experiences of a Black lesbian woman are distinct from those of a White lesbian woman. The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between victimization experiences due to race/ethnicity and/or LGBTQ+ identities and emotional well-being outcomes including psychological distress, anxiety, internalized homonegativity, and internalized stigma of gender identity. College students (N=171) from many states across the United States answered an online Qualtrics survey after having learned about this study from a link posted by their university’s Office of Multicultural Affairs, LGBTQ+ resource center, and LGBTQ+ student organizations. Respondents were between the age of 18 and 24 (M=19.20); 69% of them were White, while the rest were of ethnic minorities. In terms of sexual orientation, 29.8% identify as gay/ lesbian, 24% identify as bisexual, 18.7% identify as queer, and the rest identified with unlisted sexual orientations. In terms of gender identity, 41.5% identify as female, 29.6% identify as gender non-conforming, 17.5% identify as male, and the rest identify with other categories. The survey’s measures included: the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) (Cohen, S., & Williamson, G., 1988); the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) (Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B. W., & Lowe, B., 2006); an adaption of The Personal Homonegativity and Morality of Homosexuality subscales of the Internalized Homonegativity Inventory (INHI) (Mayfield, 2001),;and an adaption of Sexual Orientation Victimization questionnaire (D’Augelli, A., Pilkington, N., & Hershberger, S., 2002). In terms of the results, lifetime victimization experiences in this sample of college students due to race/ ethnicity (M= 1.265) and those due to LGBTQ+ identities (M= 1.898) were reported relatively low. Participants identifying as male, transgender, and genderqueer/ gender non-conforming/ non-binary were significantly more victimized for their LGBTQ+ identities than those identifying as female (p= .008, 010, & .002, respectively). Participants whose biological sex was male reported significantly higher frequency of victimization experiences due to their LGBTQ+ identities (p= .019) and marginally significantly higher frequency of victimization experiences due to their race/ ethnicity (p= .065). The major analyses suggested that there was a significant positive association between victimization experiences due to one’s LGBTQ+ identities and anxiety (r= .221, p< .001). There was a marginally significant correlation between victimization experiences due to one’s LGBTQ+ identities and internalized homo-negativity (r= .147, p= .068). Victimization due to race/ethnicity was not significantly related to the adjustment variables. Finally, there was no support for the intersectionality hypothesis that high levels of both LGBT+ and racial/ethnic victimization would lead to the highest levels of adjustment problems. The implications of this study may prompt researchers to replicate this study with a larger national sample that consists of more people of ethnic minorities in order to understand the relationship between victimization due to race/ ethnicity and that due to LGBTQ+ identities with respect to college students’ emotional well-being.

Faculty Mentor: Eric Dubow, Phd   Department: Psychology - Bowling Green State University

The Relationship between Victimization Experiences due to Race/ Ethnicity and/ or LGBTQ+ Identities and Emotional Well-being Outcomes

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Reproducibility is the epitome of scientific validity. As such, researchers conduct experiments in highly-controlled environments and meticulously record their procedures, so they can be accurately replicated by peers. However, animal facilities at universities and other organizations utilize a vast number of different environmental/housing protocols, which are often unreported in scientific literature. Recent research shows that many elements of these environments, including bedding, diet, water bottles, and cage material, inadvertently expose laboratory rodents to natural and synthetic substances that can affect the development of the body, brain and behavior. Notably, these environmental variations can expose rodents to increased levels of estrogen and endocrine-disrupting compounds. Exogenous estrogens have been shown to induce developmental and acute changes in neural functioning that can have long-term effects on anxiety and learning/memory. In our study we compare male and female rats raised from birth in two contrasting housing environments on several behavioral, developmental and reproductive endpoints. Additionally, we examine the acute effects of these housing conditions in littermates whose environmental condition was switched in adulthood. Specifically, we report the effects of environment on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and long-term memory in the object recognition task. Results from this study have important implications for reproducibility in science and for our understanding of how one’s environment affects brain development and behavior.

Faculty Mentor: Jari Willing   Department: Psychology - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: J. Asberry

Vogt Asberry Willing

“Individual Differences and Climate Science Denialism” investigates personality traits, values, and consideration of future consequences to see which of these contribute to individuals' propensity to deny climate science. Participants' personality traits, values, consideration of future consequences, and perception of environmental threat were first measured before participants were asked to read a short vignette. These vignettes, designed to look as if they had come from a reputable source, displayed either a pro-anthropogenic climate change perspective, an anti-anthropogenic climate change perspective, or a neutral perspective. Following the manipulation, perception of environmental threat was tested to see how it was changed. Finally, data was analyzed to see how individuals’ personality traits, values, and consideration for future consequences affected the degree of this change. (Note: We just recently got our project approved by the IRB, so depending on how quickly we can collect our results from MTurk, this may be presented as a Work-In-Progress.)

Faculty Mentor: Samuel McAbee, PhD   Department: Psychology - Bowling Green State University

Research has shown that childhood maltreatment is associated with increased risk for trauma- and stressor-related disorders in adulthood. This increased risk might be caused by maltreatment-induced changes in the neural circuitry underlying fear learning, which results in pathological responses to adulthood trauma. To test this hypothesis, we assessed whether childhood maltreatment was associated with altered fear learning and fear generalization in adults. Seventy-four undergraduate students learned to associate a geometrical shape with an aversive stimulus in a fear-potentiated startle paradigm. The next day, participants were tested for their fear generalization by measuring their fear responses to a variety of stimuli that were similar to, but different from, the shape observed on Day 1. Childhood maltreatment was quantified using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and participants were divided into high and low childhood maltreatment groups based on methodology employed in previous work. Results revealed that participants with high childhood maltreatment exhibited stronger fear learning and greater fear generalization than participants with low childhood maltreatment. These findings suggest that exposure to childhood stress could result in greater fear learning and an overgeneralization of fear, which could explain the link between childhood maltreatment and increased risk for certain psychological disorders in adulthood.

Faculty Mentor: Phillip Zoladz, PhD   Department: Psychology - Ohio Northern University

Additional Contributor: Seth Norrholm - Wayne State University

Weiser Reneau Helwig Cordes Virden Thebeault Pfister Getnet 

School of Art

“Pate de Verre” refers to the intricate method of using colored glass pastes in refractory molds to create kiln-cast glass forms. According to researchers at The Corning Museum of Glass, the technique was first attributed to ancient Egyptian glassmakers who created molded amulets and small vessels using “a mixture of finely crushed glass, a binding agent, and a fluxing medium to facilitate melting”. Traditionally, the mixture is applied wet into a single-use plaster refractory mold, dried, fired, divested, and sanded. My research investigates alternative methods of casting vibrantly colored pate de verre works using non-traditional materials, including multi-use silicone molds, zirconium encapsulated pigment stains, organic food additives, recycled glass, and non-carcinogenic, reusable refractory blankets.

Faculty Mentor: Tom Muir   Department: School of Art - Bowling Green State University

Alge Kelly Poster 2 of 2

The School of Art recently acquired a new ceramic stain decal printer, which enables artists to produce custom imagery that can be permanently fired on to a variety of glassy substrates. This technology offers students in the SOA an innovative path for blending 2-D digital imagery with 3-D surfaces, yet many students may be reluctant to try the printer due to its technical learning curve and the expense of experimentation. Through my research and testing, I was able to use the new equipment to identify and confirm reliable techniques for producing fired imagery on many different kinds of glass, as well as record variables specific to common studio practices that produced poor results. A key goal of my research was to develop a tangible resource that will serve students in the School of Art collectively and collaboratively. I produced an interactive technical lab guide from my findings that will facilitate student understanding of the processes and variables, and accelerate successful results in using the equipment. The lab guide encourages creative experimentation and collaborative participation among 2-D and 3-D students in the School of Art. Through shared firing logs and project notes, students will be able to work through problems together, avoiding unnecessary material waste and costly errors inherent to learning a new technique on your own. I envision this lab guide to be a growing resource that can be added to for many years to come.

Faculty Mentor: Tom Muir   Department: School of Art - Bowling Green State University

Alge Kelly Poster 1 of 2

Through this research I desire to increase the efficacy and predictability of textural glazes in order to share my research with fellow classmates, making a glazing effect that was traditionally considered a mistake an achievable and reliable design technique. Gaining the understanding of how raw materials affect the chemical process that glaze undergoes when fired will provide a deeper understanding of the materiality of glaze as a whole.

Faculty Mentor: John Balistreri   Department: School of Art - Ceramics - Bowling Green State University

Baldwin Brittney 

This research looks at which type of PLA filament, gives best quality on the Flashforge CreatorPro 3-D printers. Each brand of filament is tested for its overhang capabilities within given printing temperatures.

Faculty Mentor: Charles Tucker   Department: School of Art- Sculpture - Bowling Green State University

PLA Plastics Physical Properties

Chemistry and art have always gone hand in hand, and almost every artistic medium relies on chemistry in some way, whether or not artists are aware of it. In some mediums, the presence of chemistry is obvious, such as in film photography and certain printmaking forms such as etching. However, chemistry is also present in many other mediums, such as ceramic glazes, the production of different paints, the function of colorants in glass blowing, and in many other ways. One other use of chemistry that I am interested in exploring is the use of natural materials in the dyeing of textiles. This has been done for almost as long as humans have existed, and while we use largely synthetic dyes now, for much of history dyes were made primarily from natural resources such as plants, bacteria, and even certain animals and bugs. One of the most common and well-known of these natural materials is the Indigo plant, used primarily in India for dyeing the skin as well such as in henna tattoos. The indigo plant produces a blue colored dye, but dyes of every color of the rainbow have been made in various ways from various materials, and each of these dyes has a specific chemical makeup that determines its color. As an artist and future art educator, I am interested in the potential application of these natural materials in a creative project that allows students the opportunity to test and experiment with the use of and combination of these materials to create their own dyes to use in a fiber arts project for the high school level that would allow them to combine scientific exploration and experimentation with artistic and creative processes in an interdisciplinary classroom setting.

Faculty Mentor: Barbara Bergstrom, PhD   Department: School of Art - Art Education - Bowling Green State University

Burland Madeleine Poster 

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This presentation will both orally and through powerpoint describe the theories of the golden hour in conjunction with liminal states through the use of a video art installation. The presentation will talk about the research as well as the process behind the project.

Faculty Mentor: Ruth Burke   Department: School of Art - Digital Arts  -Bowling Green State University

Meander: An Evening Adrift

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Having good hand-dexterity and hand-eye coordination are essential skills found in dentistry. Through the exploration of jewelry & metal making processes, a vast number of similarities can be tied to the metal casting process and dental practices used daily in nearly all offices. With a focus on effort and time devoted to the repeated processes of creation and finishing tooth shaped metal rings, an understanding of this relationship can be further understood. Psychomotor skills are correlated to be one of the most significant factors affecting dental performance in and after dental school. They are required skills used to perform tasks such as jewelry making, and practice of these skills are complimentary in nature to observing improvements in both performance and efficiency. Exemplifying a scholarship learning outcome of integrative learning and written communication, a new perspective on manual dexterity in its relation to dentistry is explored. 

Faculty Mentor: Tom Muir   Department: School of Art- Arts, Jewelry and Metalsmithing - Bowling Green State University

Manual Dexterity: New Perspectives on Dentistry
* Manual Dexterity: New Perspectives On Dentistry.pptx
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As racial microaggressions become “normalized” they embed themselves into multiple policies making an organizational culture. These microaggressions can occur on the macro-level systematically and create multiple environmental and racial microaggressions, such as when African Americans feel unwelcome and invisible in specific classrooms, dorms, offices, events, fields of study, and other spaces. This study investigates a solution to that theory. By using the combination of design theory along with historical research, this study aims to create a campaign program that can help with the prevention of microaggressions and other stereotypes.

Faculty Mentor: Lori Young   Department: School of Art - Graphic Design - Bowling Green State University

Mind Your Speech: A Design Campaign Against Microaggressions

In order to achieve a greater understanding of the common colorants utilized in ceramic art and their role in surface design, I have completed a comprehensive study to determine which factors influence the final properties achieved following the firing process. The colorants that were used for testing are called mason stains. Mason stains are rich pigments that are frequently used to color glazes, slips, and washes commonly used for surface design. When added to a liquid base medium in different ratios, the stains can be used much like paints. Both the loss, and the alteration of pigmentation, is a common issue when utilizing mason stains as colorants in a high temperature reduction firing. It is very hard to predict the way a colorant will look once it has undergone a firing. One of the most common issues is the complete loss of the color, in which the pigmentation is broken down while undergoing the extreme heat of high-firing temperatures. This is often referred to as the color “burning out”. It was my goal to understand how these different stains would retain and evolve in pigmentation when used in different ways and fired under different conditions. Testing these conditions allow for one to be able to better recognize trends in what stains hold pigmentation best at high-temperatures and how one can ensure more accurate results and predictions when making critical decisions on how to approach surface design.

Faculty Mentor: John Balistreri   Department: School of Art - Ceramics - Bowling Green State University

Ceramic Colorants and the Firing Relationship

* Ceramic Colorants and the Firing Relationship.pptx
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Shino glazes are glazed first used in Japan and have historically been used for their spontaneity in surface through the glaze firing process. Shinos are typically earth tones, with most being orange, brown, or red. Through research, other colors have been achieved by incorporating encapsulated mason stains into the glaze recipe. Mason stains are colors that have been prefired and can be added to virtually anything in ceramics to change the hue toward that of the stain. This process took many trials, leading from a base glaze, to shifts in proportions in material, and finally adding color to the final glaze. This process allowed me to create new Shino glazes, glazes that are no longer earth tones.

Faculty Mentor: Andrew Gilliatt   Department: School of ArtCeramics - Bowling Green State University


The development of the International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) and Special International Group on Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH) Archives has been an ongoing research and development project involving many students. We will be continuing the project this spring. The scope of this project is extremely large and is currently the world’s largest archive documenting the history of media art. The goal of this project is to add immense quantities of data, fix bugs, and add new features to the ISEA and ACM SIGGRAPH Online Archives. We will research and develop the ability to export data and transform it into visualizations. There are over 50,000 fields to retrieve and thus we have researched and implemented effective ways to obtain them. An archive is only as good as the accuracy of the data so we consistently checking that entries are accurate and contain unique identifiers and metadata as well. Overall, this is an amazing opportunity and very important research project.

Faculty Mentor: Bonnie Mitchell   Department: School of Art - Digital Art - Bowling Green State University

Sykes Rachel Poster

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School of Cultural and Critical Studies

In order to answer the scholarly question "Why is there such ambivalence towards academic success among students of color?", surveys containing questions regarding attitudes towards students' future and past academic success, academic preparedness (as far as school materials) and support (as far as peers and faculty) will be distributed. Students of color are already at risk of not succeeding in higher learning, and part of that may be due to the fact that they simply don't believe in themselves and/or have do not or did not enough support in the schools they attend and attended in the past. Data will be collected for students of color and white students in order to compare the two data sets and therefore reach a conclusion on how these two groups' experiences in academic settings differ.

Faculty Mentor: Diana Depasquale   Department: School of Cultural and Critical Studies -  Ethnic Studies, Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies - Bowling Green State University

Racial Differences in Academic Preparedness, Support, and Success

Salient identities are identities that a person considers most important to their self-concept (Morris, 2013). Most individuals have salient intersecting identities that are not always visible, such as racial, sexual, and gender identities that interact in a complex manner resulting in a unique set of experiences (Crenshaw, 1993). At times, these identities may conflict causing feelings of uncertainty and anxiety, necessitating a process of identity negotiation (Faulkner & Hecht, 2011). The negotiation of multiple and stigmatized identities, such as nonbinary gender identities, presents individuals with situations they require identity negotiation. The present study used the Communication Theory of Identity (CTI) to frame an investigation into multiple and intersecting identities among LGBTQ university students. CTI proposes that identity is composed of four overlapping frames including the (1) personal, (2) enacted, (3) relational, and (4) communal (Faulkner & Hecht, 2006). The purposes of this study are: (1) to understand how identity gaps may be exemplified by the clash (or a lack thereof) between two salient identities in terms of the four identity layers; (2) to observe how identities may be negotiated as identity gaps are identified. The investigator interviewed 20 participants about their salient identities and times when they needed to negotiate identity gaps, places where differences in identities created conflicts within identity and across identity layers related to personal perceptions, expressions, relationships, and a sense of community (Faulkner & Hecht, 2011). Findings show that gaps between two salient identities can manifest within identity layers (e.g., personal layer of being a transgender man vs. personal layer of being Hispanic), and between two or more identity layers (e.g., enacted layer of being a cis woman vs. communal layer of being queer; personal layer of being Catholic vs. communal layer of being Catholic vs. enacted layer of being queer; relational layer of being biromantic vs. personal layer of being asexual). Also, findings suggest that participants use at least one or more of the following three strategies to negotiate their identities: absolution of conflict; identity compartmentalization; ignorance/ neglect of conflict. As one engages in internal resolution which stems from absolution of conflict, they, as a result, may experience identity affirmation/ exploration. These findings give us insights into the complex nature of identity gaps and identity negotiation. Clinicians or intervention specialists may acquire deeper knowledge about the importance of identity gaps to identity development and individuals’ struggle to reconcile identity gaps. Future research should focus on identity compartmentalization to better understand the implications of the concept of intersectionality

Faculty Mentor: Sandra Faulkner, PhD   Department: Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies - Bowling Green State University

Negotiating Identity Gaps: Experiences of LGBTQ University Students

School of Earth, Environment and Society

Water quality managers have been working for decades on controlling critical nutrient levels, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), in order to combat harmful algal blooms (HABs) in Western Lake Erie. Open water lake dredged disposal is a common method practiced by the Ohio Corps of Engineers to dispose of dredged sediments obtained from the federal navigational channels. After July 1st, 2020, the Ohio legislature has banned such activity. The disposal of dredged material back into Lake Erie poses an environmental threat to the water quality. Dredged sediments are abundant in nutrients, particularly N and P. This excess of nutrients in the water can lead to eutrophication and ultimately HABs. The overarching goal of this study was to look at alternative uses of the nutrient enriched dredged material in agriculture and the impacts on the environment. This project was complimentary to Dr. Vázquez-Ortega’s research funded by the Lake Erie Protection Fund. My CURS research objective was to study the nitrogen and phosphorus content in farm soils amended with dredged material and planted with soybean. I also looked at the N and P within the soybean plants and the percolated waters. Results revealed that over time, the soybean plants were using the additional nutrients (N and P) that the amended farm soil provided. Incorporating the dredged material into the soils increased the amount of available nutrients that the plants could use and ultimately reduced the N and P contents in the percolated waters.

Faculty Mentor: Angélica Vázquez-Ortega, PhD   Department: Earth,Environement, and Society  - Bowling Green State University

Bebinger Hannah

I will be giving a google slides presentation on my hand-drawn atlas of the countries of Africa. I completed seven drawings for each individual country, of which there are 54, and compiled them into a complete document.

Faculty Mentor: Yu Zhou, PhD  Department: Geography - Bowling Green State University

The Illustrated Atlas of Africa

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Lake Erie is a shallow lake and needs to be dredged yearly to ensure the navigation of ships and vessels into the ports. Currently, nutrient-rich dredged material has been removed from the federal navigational channels and disposed of in open waters in the central basin. The redistributing of nutrients in the water column exacerbates the harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie. As a result, the state of Ohio passed a bill banning open-water dredged sediment disposal after July 1st, 2020. Scientists and governmental agencies have identified several beneficial uses for dredged sediment. This study uses dredged material as a soil amendment to decrease the use of artificial fertilizer. The aim of this study was to compare under a greenhouse approach, how different local farm soil to dredged sediment ratios affects soybean yield. Results indicated that an increase in dredged sediment amendment increased soybean yields and roots biomass.

Faculty Mentor: Angelica Vasquez-Ortega, PhD   Department: School of Earth, Environment and Society - Bowling Green State University

Manner Emily 

Antifouling paint is commonly used at Ohio marinas as a method of preventing fouling organisms from harming boats. Much of this antifouling paint is copper-based. When boats are washed at the end of the boating season, the copper in the antifouling paint leaches into the lake through wastewater. This is a concern because copper is harmful to aquatic life in high levels. Additionally, Ohio marinas now must follow the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit OHR 000006, which means that they cannot simply allow boat wash water to directly enter the lake after boats are washed. Instead, marina operators must find an alternative method of disposal for their boat wash water. The objective of this research is to determine the levels of copper and other harmful contaminants that are entering Lake Erie as a result of the use of antifouling paint. This information can be determined through the analysis of water and sediment samples from several Ohio marinas. Due to the various wastewater drainage systems in use amongst these marinas, this research will also help determine the most efficient way for marinas to comply with the new wastewater regulation.

Faculty Mentor: John Farver, PhD   Department: School of Earth, Environment and Society - Bowling Green State University

Reinhardt Alyssa  

The effect of dredged sediment amendment on soil health Abstract Each year 1.5 million tons of sediments are dredged from Ohioan harbors. As of July 1st, 2020, the open water disposal of dredged material in Lake Erie will be banned. Researchers and governmental agencies have been tasked to find beneficial uses for the dredged material. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effect of dredged sediment amendment on soil health. A greenhouse approach was used, in which a typical farm soil was amended with dredged sediments. The soil to dredged sediment ratios were as follow: 100% soil, 100% dredged, 90% soil: 10% dredged and 80% soil: 20% dredged. Soybeans were grown for 150 days. No synthetic fertilizer was added to the mesocosms (buckets). Results showed that an increase in dredged material amendment decrease the soil bulk density due to the high content of organic matter. This observation has important implications because this allows the root system to penetrate and colonize a larger volume of soil. The addition of dredged sediment also increased soil cation exchange capacity (CEC). The CEC is a soil chemical characterization that describes the amount of nutrients absorbed into the soil. Dredged sediments provided adequate nutrient content to the soil; in specific, high content of calcium, that is a plant macronutrient.

Faculty Mentor: Angelica Vasquez-Ortega, PhD   Department: School of Earth, Environment and Society - Bowling Green State University

Swint Adam 

School of Media and Communication

All across the world, immigration policies and public opinions of immigration are changing. The debate on who has the right to reside in and benefit from different countries is raging. Places across the world where this debate has never been seen are struggling with the newfound immigration crisis. There are few cases of developing countries where an analysis can be made of immigration policies, but the country of Costa Rica, a stable nation within a developing region, provides a unique example of the ever changing debate. Costa Rica is considered one of the only stable, democratic countries in the Central American region. Because of this, an examination of Costa Rica’s immigration policies gives a look into how immigration policy as a whole is changing. Throughout my research, I examined a brief history of Costa Rica’s immigration policies. Following this, I examined the different factors that affect the policies. By doing this, I was reviewing my hypothesis that, while there would be concrete factors leading to these more stringent policies, underlying all of them would be a lack of understanding of the immigrant population. To show this, I made brief comparisons between the United States and Costa Rica when it comes to immigration policy.

Faculty Mentor: Lara Martin-Lengel, PhD   Department: Communication - Bowling Green State University

Using Costa Rica to Examine How and Why Immigration Policies are Becoming Stricter

    Costa Rica is one of the world’s most biodiverse nations, housing an extensive collection of wildlife throughout a rich landscape.  Costa Rica has become a leader in green efforts and has taken significant steps toward becoming the world’s first carbon neutral nation. The country serves as a successful example of governmental interventions improving forest restoration and sustainable agriculture. Through a two-week immersive study abroad experience, the biodiversity within Costa Rica has been observed and documented.  Investigations are based on a variety of service learning experiences while abroad. There was in-depth studying of wildlife conservation efforts at the Costa Rican Animal Rescue Center, a study of policy and potential problems of current conservation laws while visiting a barrier island Playa Palo Seco, and an exploration into the threat of deforestation and commercial farming within the biodiverse mangrove swamps of the Central Pacifico region. Compilation of these investigations provides unique insight into the Costa Rican environment and proves that governmental involvement in conservation can help preserve some of the world’s most biodiverse ecosystems. Due to the numerous policies in place by the Costa Rican government, there is a more prominent ideology of sustainable practices and environmental awareness. Costa Rica’s commitment to sustainable action can promote worldwide awareness of the urgency to protect the natural world and its wildlife. 

Faculty Mentor: Lara Martin-Lengel, PhD   Department: Communication - Bowling Green State University

Costa Rica’s Success in Preserving Biodiversity and Environmental Sustainability

During my time in Costa Rica, I sought to answer the research question, "How does Costa Rica work to conserve their wildlife and educate others about conservation?". The purpose of this is to compare to the efforts made in the United States and better implement laws so that our own wildlife can be protected and healthy. I spent time at an Animal Rescue Center, where I observed and spoke to staff there in order to learn more about the challenges that the animals and volunteers face. Costa Rica's efforts have been very extensive and the people, the government all work together to help maintain a sustainable environment for animals. There has been a significant decrease in animal trafficking, and environment conservation is now being implemented in education throughout the country. In the United States, we can learn a lot from Costa Rica about how they care and support wildlife.

Faculty Mentor: Lara Martin-Lengel, PhD   Department: Media and Communication - Bowling Green State University

Wildlife Conservation Efforts in Costa Rica

This study begins by looking at the background of deforestation within Costa Rica and how that led to a need for the implementation of further education and the use of protected areas within Costa Rica. It was conducted through field research and interviews in Costa Rica, utilizing the resources at the Costa Rica Animal Rescue Center, as well as interviews with indigenous peoples trying to preserve the land and college students focusing on the future of Costa Rica's sustainable tourism industry.

Faculty Mentor: Lara Martin-Lengel, PhD   Department: Media and Communication - Bowling Green State University

Investigating Conservation Efforts In Costa Rica

This project used the combination of first-hand observations and research to analyze the effectiveness and strategy of Costa Rica's strategy on the conservation of turtles. For observations, there was a visitation of a local sea turtle conservation center and a second-hand interview. In addition, there was comparison of organizational and governmental strategies between Costa Rica and the United States.

Faculty Mentor: Lara Martin-Lengel, PhD   Department: Media and Communication - Bowling Green State University

Comprehensive study on effectiveness of conservation efforts to protect sea turtles in Costa Rica

Mangroves are a type of coastal vegetation present in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical climates. This project explores the mangroves of Costa Rica, their significance, and various strategies the country utilizes in order to protect mangrove forests. The scholarly topic pertains to mangroves located in the United States and Costa Rica along with methods used to maintain the wildlife that live within them. The concept of ecotourism will be explored and how mangrove forests are used to promote ecotourism, especially in Costa Rica. After analyzing these methods and strategies, Costa Rican efforts will be compared and contrasted with the United States’ conservation of mangrove environments. The reasoning behind each country’s outlook towards environmental protection of areas such as mangrove forests will be discussed. Finally, the research and findings will be used to delineate why studying a topic such as the mangroves of Costa Rica expand a student’s worldview and ability to merge multiple ways of thinking.

Faculty Mentor: Lara Martin-Lengel, PhD   Department: Communication - Bowling Green State University

Sustainability and Growth: The Mangroves of Costa Rica

This past winter session, I spent two weeks in Costa Rica studying abroad. While most of the lectures and knowledge that we gained on this trip was focused on the history of Costa Rica and their current conservation efforts, I observed the Costa Rican interactions and differences between speech, language, and hearing. Throughout our time in this country, we interacted with various groups of people including students from the University of Costa Rica, the indigenous people of Terraba, and both bilingual speakers as well as monolingual Spanish speakers.

Faculty Mentor: Lara Martin-Lengel, PhD   Department: Media and Communication - Bowling Green State University

Observational Speech, Language, and Hearing Findings in Costa Rica


The goal of this project was to examine the causes and sources of anxiety experienced by emerging adults with a focus on romantic relationships. With a sample of six qualitative interviews selected from the Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study (TARS), the events and experiences that cause anxiety for emerging adults were analyzed. With a life course perspective in mind, I also examined how experiences throughout childhood and adolescence may impact the way individuals behave in relationships and what factors may lead to anxiety. The questions this study aimed to answer are: 1. What are the individuals anxious about? 2. Is the anxiety discussed due to their romantic relationships or some other source? 3. Do men and women talk about their experiences with anxiety in different ways? Results showed a few common themes regarding sources of anxiety, including family conflict, mental or physical health issues, financial stress, divorce/break ups, and conflict/violence within romantic relationships. All of these themes were found to directly lead to stress and anxiety for individuals and to cause strain on romantic relationships. Interestingly, some of these variables were found to be a direct result of romantic relationships, such as mental/physical health issues and financial stress.

Faculty Mentor: Monica Longmore, PhD   Department: Sociology - Bowling Green State University

Sources of Anxiety in Emerging Adult Relationships: A Qualitative Analysis

Recently, the U.S. government passed new legislation that limits Americans’ access to SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) benefits by changes in calculating who is eligible for food stamps as well as eliminating automatic enrollment in SNAP for disadvantaged families who receive federal assistance. Many experts believe the proposal is likely to increase food insecurity among needy families, affecting up to 3.1 million people. The long reaching effects of food insecurity, such as possible increase in criminal activity, have not been fully explored. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) Wave I and Wave IV, this study examines the association between food insecurity and self-reported criminal behavior by performing a multivariate logistic regression by controlling for modifiers such as age, race and ethnicity, prior delinquency. It also explores the possible longitudinal relationship of parents’ education, parents’ relationship status, and parents’ economic issues during childhood and outcomes in adulthood with food insecurity and its positive association with self-reported crime.

Faculty Mentor: Raymond Swisher, PhD   Department: Sociology - Bowling Green State University

Jennifer Kania CURS Spring 2020 Poster Presentation  Revised   1  

Popular forms of holistic health, meditation and yoga, are traditional Eastern spiritual healing modalities that are widely accepted into modern Western lifestyles. This acceptance appears to be complete within current American society, yet mostly lack the traditional spiritual discipline that was the intended purpose and origin of these modalities. What acts as an intensely spiritual and important practice for Eastern cultures has become a trend to Western cultures for upkeep of physical and mental health. The westernization of these spiritual modalities transforms the intent of these practices from a religious, spiritual basis to a medical, result-driven practice that appeals to its American consumers. This study focuses on how meditation and yoga are presented and become "westernized" by examining articles in the magazine Spirituality & Health over a 20 year period.

Faculty Mentor: Madeline Duntley, PhD   Department: Sociology - Bowling Green State University

The Westernization of Yoga and Meditation through the Lens of Spirituality & Health Magazine 1999 - 2019

Parks are the site of social interactions between individuals, groups of people, and the environment. Countless research articles have documented the influences of institutional rules and policies, perceptions, accessibility, proximity, and geographical location on park users (diversity of users, recreational uses, etc.) With the support of my faculty advisor, Dr. Margret Weinberger, and CURS, I researched local parks in Bowling Green, Ohio. This research is classified as both ethnographic and exploratory and is composed of field observations, online research, and a literature review. I designed pre- and post- template forms to record park history, online website appearance, users (individuals or group size), perceived diversity of demographic characteristics (e.g. race, age, gender), individual behaviors, park maintenance, special events, weather, and overall patterns of use. My research and observations are broken down into seven distinct categories that can be viewed through multiple filters with a sociological imagination: 1.) diversity of visitors, 2.) minority status of visitors, 3.) park maintenance, 4.) user-deviant behavior, 5.) technology usage, 6.) park usage, and 7.) social interactions.

Faculty Mentor: Margaret Weinberg, PhD   Department: Sociology - Bowling Green State University

Smith Adam 1 

Part 1 of this research ended by collecting approximately 90 hour’s worth of observation data and recordings through voice recordings and templates. At the end of my research, “Part 1 of 3: Environmental Sociology: Inquiry of Place, Space, and Parks”, I saw a gap in gaining a holistic view of peoples’ input and experiences in Bowling Green public parks; therefore part 2 of this research aims to use web-based reviews to gain the input and feedback from people who are visiting different types of public-use natural areas (parks) in Bowling Green, Ohio. The methodology is a blend of narrative and ethnographic research and includes approximately 30 reviews for each of the six focus parks in my previous research. People share their experience on an accessible platform (online), and they can reflect on exactly what made their experience impactful—positive or negative. Online reviews craft a detailed portrait of each park; in some cases, quite literally, as park users upload their photos along with their reviews. Individual reviews were coding using the same topics in Part 1. In addition, I used a metrics of 5-stars, which is the same criteria for online reviews through Google. Parks are always evolving and changing. With the increase in urbanized places and urban density, public places for individuals and groups to engage in are vital for the health of people, communities, and society at large. Research that captures what is going on in these places and advises how we can better promote and develop parks is essential for the ongoing creation and evolution of public recreational areas.

Faculty Mentor: Margaret Weinberger, PhD   Department: Sociology - Bowling Green State University

Smith Adam 2 

Over the Winter 2020 term, I advanced my previous park research by studying the parallels and divergences of the principles, guidelines, and concepts of major design philosophies revolving around the natural and built environment. Permaculture, biophilic design, and landscape architecture all aim to cultivate a “natural” space into a built place that people can connect to and prosper in. Each of these design methods revolve around guidelines and principles that aim to shape landscapes in an interactive, self-regulating, and sustainable way. Part 3 of this research includes a deep literature review and three individual case studies of each design methodology. After comparing these design principles and guidelines this research identifies a set of standard and shared design values that could be used to solve many of the social and environmental issues we are currently experiencing on both a local and global level. Sociology has historically discounted much of society’s relationship to the environment, but as more researchers invest their time, efforts, and studies to the field (environmental sociology), connections are made between the health of the environment and the well-being of society.

Faculty Mentor: Margaret Weinberger, PhD   Department: Sociology - Bowling Green State University

Smith Adam 3 

Theatre and Film

The process of making of a short film with a message.  In rural Ohio,  socially awkward woman Cecilia Seguro and her best friend Kevin, a quite literal hand puppet,  have a hard time fitting in. After her landlord  changes her unofficial lease to house his recently homeless niece, Cecilia and Kevin are left with no other option than to share the house.   While adjusting to her outspoken new roommate MiMi, Ceci tries to keep her routine afloat but MiMi hopes to spice things up and show her how to be confident in herself and relearn the love for her heritage.

Faculty Mentor: Thomas Castillo  Department: Film and Theatre - Bowling Green State University

Ser Una Chingona

* Ser Una Chingona.pptx
Download the Presentation Here.

Paul Thomas Anderson's debut feature film, Hard Eight, was released in 1996 to moderately positive reviews but a disappointing box office return. Though Anderson is considered one of the most prolific and influential American filmmakers working today, his first film is an oft-overlooked work of both the independent film movement of the 1990s and his own filmography. Based on research conducted in Fall 2019, this presentation examines Anderson's film in both contexts. Utilizing various details surrounding the film's production and reception, I first seek to illustrate the factors that played into Anderson's desire to make the film and the minute impact it made upon its initial release. Then, under the lens of an auteur study, this presentation seeks to draw thematic and stylistic parallels between Hard Eight and two of Anderson's most acclaimed and popular films, Boogie Nights (1997) and There Will Be Blood (2007), demonstrating the much greater impact his debut feature would come to have on the rest of his illustrious and ongoing career.

Faculty Mentor: Cynthia Baron, PhD   Department: Theatre and Film - Bowling Green State University

Paul Thomas Anderson's "Hard Eight" in the Context of the Independent Film Movement and the Director's Filmography

* Narration.pdf
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This is a summary of what KCACTF is and my experiences and accomplishments there this past January. It details the Irene Ryan Acting Scholarship, as well as other experiences offered to participants and had by me.

Faculty Mentor: Michael Ellison, PhD   Department: Theatre and Film - Bowling Green State University


This research project seeks to criticize common portrayals of Arab countries in post-September 11th American media. Scholarly articles and research from accredited universities serve as the foundation of the paper. 12 different films and television shows are cited as both positive and negative examples throughout the paper, with special attention being paid to Aladdin (1992). Aladdin (1992) serves as a microcosm of multiple issues we see with American perceptions of Arab characters. In order to complete this project, I received a grant from the BGSU Honors College to study abroad in Morocco for 3 weeks to observe the culture and interview fellow students on their and their family’s predispositions on studying abroad in an Arab country. Many students said they and their families were apprehensive about them visiting Africa, especially since Morocco’s population is primarily Muslim. The students touch on some of their expectations on visiting Morocco, and how they later felt that those expectations had been rooted in an American culture of Islamophobia and racism. This paper explores how this harmful culture is spread and reinforced in American media through stereotypes, the creation of “the evil other,” and the generalization of African countries with large Arab populations such as Morocco, Western Sahara, Algeria, and Egypt, as well as how these countries and their cultures are often equated with the Middle East, when in fact each country has their own unique culture, heritage, and traditions. This research seeks to criticize and dismantle these issues that contribute to an Islamophobic and racist American society.

Faculty Mentor: Hannah Mueller-Miller, PhD   Department: Theatre and Film - Bowling Green State University

American Perceptions of Arab Countries in Film

World Languages and Cultures

After World War II, Germany was center stage in the struggle between the super powers USSR and the USA. On each side in the Cold War stood fervent and fierce rivals as they squared off in a political, economic, and cultural fight for influence in the world. Neither side was willing to compromise their ideologies, and each was willing to take drastic measures to insure victory for their respective side. Life, however, did not revolve around this potential mutual destruction all the time. The ideologies of both the East and West, socialism and capitalism, produced unique and fascinating cultures on either side of the Iron Curtain. In both East and West Germany, cultural life, including feature films, reflected the ideological divide to varying degrees. My studies have allowed me to come into dialogue with a number of themes from this period as they are portrayed in feature film; themes such as identity, pride, and guilt. In my paper, I have chosen to examine a theme that is evident in many films by one of the leading film directors of the GDR, Konrad Wolf. In my paper, I plan to examine how youth is portrayed in East German cinema of the mid 1960s, most notably the films from Konrad Wolf: The Divided Heaven(1964) and I was Nineteen(1968).

Faculty Mentor: Christina Guenther, PhD   Department: World Languages and Cultures - Bowling Green State University

Youth in Konrad Wolf's "Divided Heaven" and "I was Nineteen"

* Youth in Wolf's Film.pptx
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* Youth in Konrad Wolf Films.docx
Download the Narration Here.

College of Business Administration

Applied Statistics and Operations Research

In this study we will develop several supervised machine learning models based on data scraped from public real-estate data sources such as and to predict whether or not a random sample of households from across four different counties have a swimming pool or not. The households will be selected from four counties identified from each of the four regions of the United States of comparable size. Addresses will be randomly selected from a sampling vendor who compiles near complete address listings of households across the country. Using these addresses we will then scrape information on household related attributes including house value, square footage, number of floors, type of basement, lot size, presence of swimming pool, presence of garage, number of bedrooms and ownership status and age of home. These variables will then be used to create predictive models using support vector machines, random forests, classification trees and extra trees to predict presence of swimming pools.

Faculty Mentor: Trent Buskirk, PhD   Department: Applied Statistics and Operations Research - Bowling Green State University   

Taking a Dive in the Big Data Lake: Web Scraped Data for Constructing Sampling frames of Swimming Pools


World Series tournaments of chinese poker have been played for cash awards. It was uncertain what strategies players were employing. With so many ways to compose 13 cards, from a standard 52 card deck, into three hands as a legal turnin, it is possible that certain strategies of hand composition have a competitive edge over others. Unfortunately, with so much of this game being based on luck, the comparison of two strategies over a single night of play is hardly measurable nor trustable. Using computationally exhaustive methods to play a very large number of games and keep track, we have been comparing numerous strategies against one another, in hopes of finding that one of these has a competitive edge against all other strategies. In order for one strategy to have a competitive edge over all others in a symmetric, zero sum game it must be the best response to itself, and thus be the only nash equilibrium when treating this as an infinitely repeated game, which is needed to attempt to take luck out of the equation. By finding a deterministic, dominant strategy for composing hands and turnins, we can consider this a solved game.

Faculty Mentor: Peter VanderHart, PhD   Department: Economics - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Ian Miller

Challenging Chinese Poker

* Challenging Chinese Poker.pptx
Download Powerpoint here.

In my paper I estimate the effects of opioid prescribing rates and medical marijuana laws on suicide deaths in the United States. People with certain medical conditions, such as chronic pain, may experience suicidal ideation, especially when their symptoms are not managed well. Treatments that help patients manage their symptoms, such as opioids or medical marijuana, may result in better management of symptoms, which may decrease the chances of suicidal ideation. Some papers have explored the effect of chronic pain on depression or suicidal ideation and the effect of medical marijuana on opioid prescribing or suicide deaths, but there is little information about the effects of changes in opioid prescriptions on suicide deaths. This paper seeks to provide insight into the way that changes in opioid prescribing and medical marijuana laws affect suicide deaths. To answer this, I am estimating the change in the number of suicides that results from a one unit increase in the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed per 100 persons. I am using a two-way fixed effects model, in order to compare changes in each of the variables while accounting for regional and time period differences. Other variables I include are the number of mental health physicians, the number of specialty therapists, the unemployment rate, the population, and the minimum wage. I found that, in the absence of medical marijuana laws, a one unit increase in opioid prescriptions per 100 people results in a 0.362% decrease in the number suicide deaths per state (p<0.01). Put another way, a one unit decrease in the prescribing rate results in 0.362% more suicide deaths annually. Additionally, the presence of medical marijuana laws results in a 28.3% decrease in suicide deaths (p<0.01) However, in states with medical marijuana laws, additional opioid prescriptions leads to a 0.066% increase in the number of annual suicide deaths per state (p<0.001).

Faculty Mentor: Amanda Cook, PhD   Department: Economics - Bowling Green State University

The Effects of Opioid Prescribing and Medical Marijuana Laws on Suicide Deaths in the United States


In this project 3 non-profit organizations were interviewed about their use of event management to produce funds as well as to carry out their core mission. The Victory Center, The Kidney Foundation of North West Ohio and Mercy Children's Hospitals have presented their funds raised through event management and how using events impacts their organization, allowing them to impact the community. Each organization has also been asked how the COVID-19 and event-ban environment has impacted and will continue to impact their operations.

Faculty Mentor: David Dewey  Department: Marketing - Bowling Green State University

The Societal Impact of Event Management  2

Intellectual property rights (IPR) helps entrepreneurs, inventors, researchers, businesses, and universities protect their unique products of thought. This protection allows the patent holder to market their innovation for sole economic gain. The possibility of this protected economic gain incentivizes others to contribute to the intellectual growth of society. In the last century, developing countries have changed and adapted their intellectual property law to be in accordance with international treaties and policies such as the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). A contrasting view of the United States and Costa Rica shows a developed IPR system and a developing one. An example of a pursued patent within Costa Rica coupled with trade agreements and policies highlight the importance of developing strong IPR as well as the difficulty that comes with it.

Faculty Mentor: Kristen Krebs   Department: Marketing - Bowling Green State University

Intellectual Property Analysis: U.S. And Costa Rica

College of Education and Human Development

School of Family and Consumer Sciences

Background: The Renaissance began around 1400 in Florence, Italy and eventually spread throughout Milan, Rome, and the rest of Europe. The Renaissance spanned from the 14th to the 17th Century and it was the most profound art movement, it was the enlightened age of art and architecture due to a renewed cultural interest in classical antiquity (Richman-Abdou, 2017). The Italian Renaissance is known as the golden age of music, literature, and art, and has been the muse for many famous Renaissance artists: da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Botticelli, just to name a few, and father of Renaissance architecture Brunelleschi.    Objectives: Understanding the origin of the Italian Renaissance and the effects that impacted Italian art, and architecture after the emergence of the Italian Renaissance.While understanding the importance of the Italian Renaissance in modern Italy.  Methods: Information was collected and documented about art and architecture that had influences from the Italian Renaissance in six cities in Italy. Pictures and videos of Renaissance buildings and art were analyzed to determine the prominence of the Italian Renaissance.  Results: The research results showed that the Italian Renaissance is very prominent in four out of the six locations we visited in both the architecture and art of the cities. Three  locations had soft influences of the renaissance which is due to their locations and the prominent styles that took place during that time.  Conclusion: While religious cathedrals occupied some of the most detailed architecture and infamous paintings and sculptures from Renaissance artists, we are exposed to a time where music, whimsical designs, and color theory shaped the new worlds for centuries.  

Faculty Mentor: Rinad Al-Shboul  Department: Interior Design - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Shelby Wilkins

Italy Poster for Symposium KaitAdams

The Presence of The Italian Renaissance in Modern Italy

The Listening Post at Bowling Green State University is a course that emphasizes the development of listening skills in the context of listening to oneself, others, and clients in a direct service role. The class also features a component that encompasses active listening between walk-up clients and student listeners stationed at the Post, which is located on campus in the Student Union. As the students of the course may one day embark on a career path in the helping field, it is made clear that the importance of active, empathetic listening is monumental to any future occupational success. It is with this philosophy in mind that I chose to study the impact of the Listening Post course itself. Specifically, I wanted to explore if students enrolled in the Listening Post course improved their ability to listen via the “window” view rather than the “mirror” perspective.

Faculty Mentor: Laura Landry-Meyer, PhD   Department: Human Development and Family Studies - Bowling Green State University

Caniglia Bockbrader  

Colleges and universities continue to see an increase in the first-year dropout rates, Overall, the dropout rate is 40%, however, 30% of college students drop out after their first year (College Dropout Statistics, n.d.). After students’ first year of attending a college or university, it is likely they will return to an institution near their home. Considering the increase in dropout rates, it is important to understand that students of all levels dropouts’ range. Erik Erikson notes that when moving to early adulthood if people are unaware of their sense of self, it will be difficult to move onto the next stage of life. This can make it difficult to form intimate relationships with others (Amidon, & Ortwein, n.d.). By noting Erikson's 8 stages of psychosocial development and seeing from experience that group identity helps a person feel as though they belong, it is important to access students with empowerment. At Bowling Green State University, Spring 2020, the School of Family Consumer Sciences and Faculty of the Department of Human Development and Family Studies decided to pass out wellness bags to ensure the health and wellbeing of their students. Faculty members wanted to empower students of all levels from first-year students to graduate students, with resources to finish the semester empowered. Along with wellness bags, studies have shown that academic and social integration, along with a student’s identity, this relates to a more positive goal commitment, more significant relationships, and have institutional commitment (Bowman & Felix 2017). Through a literature analysis, I hope to increase the knowledge and interest of students and faculty in understanding their engagement and sense of belonginess.

Faculty Mentor: Laura Landry-Meyer, PhD   Department: Human Development and Family Studies - Bowling Green State University

School of Teaching and Learning

College can be an exciting time for many first-year students as new environments often expose students to different experiences. One aspect of students’ lives that often gets altered is their diet and amount of physical activity. New eating patterns and drinking in excess can lead to negative health effects for students. In addition, activity levels of college students tend to decrease as they are often no longer involved in strenuous athletic sports. Personal well-being is often pushed aside as students are focused on so many other aspects of college life including social life, work, and education. All of these changes in lifestyle behaviors can act as precursors to obesity. As this is often the first time many students live on their own, it is important to give students the resources they need to keep themselves healthy; both mentally and physically. Prevalence of prediabetes has increased dramatically over the past few years, and our research project has focused on its impact on first-year college students at BGSU.
Study abroad is a valuable opportunity to challenge yourself in a new environment and connect with others across language and culture barriers.

Faculty Mentor: Gabriel Matney, PhD   Department: School of Teaching and Learning - Bowling Green State University

Cultural and Mathematics Learning in Thailand

College of Health and Human Services

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders

First-time TESOL volunteers are often unprepared, inexperienced, and unqualified to teach English, and can feel overwhelmed with the pressure to be competent teachers. The purpose of this literature review and these consultations is to present the demands and needs of ESL volunteers in order that they may be effective teachers. These demands of ESL volunteers will be categorized according to the eight domains of the 2008 TESOL International Association Standards for ESL/EFL Teachers of Adults Framework. The literature review comprised of a thematic search of past and current research. The consultation process was semi-structured, phenomenological, and qualitative. Five professionals in the ESL field participated in interviews. After both the literature review and consultation process, themes were identified and results were categorized into the above framework.

Faculty Mentors: Colleen Fitzgerald, PhD and Anastasiia Kryzhanivska   Department: Communication Sciences and Disorders - Bowling Green State University

English Proficiency at a Glance: A Report for First-Time English Teaching Volunteers

English story retells from eight preschool-age Spanish-English bilingual children were analyzed using an adaptation of the Narrative Assessment Protocol. Analyses were conducted to examine differences in narrative microstructure at two time points. Median scores at Time 2 were statistically significantly different from scores at Time 1. Children’s narratives at Time 2 were more complex and contained more microstructure elements.

Faculty Mentor: Virginia Dubasik, PhD   Department: Communication Sciences and Disorders - Bowling Green State University

Hernon Nora 

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine and categorize patterns of vocal fry in running speech. Since no other research studies have attempted to fully categorize vocal fry before, and due to the universality of the phenomenon of vocal fry, and the potential psychosocial and voice disorder consequences that come with using it, this topic is of great significance. Methods: For this study, voice samples were read into Praat and analyzed, and minor differences in the physiologies that produce different “types” of fry were examined. Results: Temporal categories of vocal fry we discovered were as follows: “onset,” “earlier,” “later,” and “final,” depending on if the fry occurs at the onset of the syllable, earlier in the syllable, later in the syllable, or at the final part (end) of the syllable. We also explored different physiological categories of the fry, including “single pulses,” “double pulses,” and “multiple pulses,” which refer to the number of glottal pulses within the fry production. Other physiological categories explored through this study include period doubling fry, as well as delay fry and inaudible fry, which have not been described in previous literature. As for frequency of occurrence of these categories, fry in the onset of the syllable and early in the syllable tended to be the most common. Single pulse fry was the most frequent physiological pattern exhibited by the speakers in the study. Conclusion: Vocal fry is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon. The results of this study suggest that there are definitively types of vocal fry that also need to be differentiated physiologically.

Faculty Mentor: Ronald Scherer, PhD   Department: Communication Sciences and Disorders - Bowling Green State University

The Categorization of Vocal Fry in Running Speech

Speech production treatments often target effortful speaking styles (e.g., clear or loud speech) that aim to increase the neuromuscular drive of the speech motor system (e.g., Lam & Tjaden, 2016; Ramig et al., 2018). However, the extent to which the gains associated with louder and clearer speech are robust to interference from concurrent task demands that are often encountered in everyday speaking situations has yet to be quantified. The specific purpose of this investigation was to quantify the extent to which changes in speech motor control associated with clear and loud speech are affected by concurrent performance of an attention-demanding secondary task.

Faculty Mentors: Jason Whitfield, PhD and Adam Fullenkamp, PhD  Department: Communication Sciences and Disorders - Bowling Green State University

Graduate/Doctoral Contributors: Zoe Kriegel, Serena Holdosh and Allison Deemer

Sullivan Lauren 


We hope to understand the difference between story telling abilities in people with fluent aphasia due to brain damage and people with typical speech and language abilities. In order to achieve our aim of comparing people with and without aphasia, we have gathered data on how people without aphasia tell stories. We have conducted a content analysis on both corpora of stories (people with aphasia and age matched peers without aphasia) and determine which concepts and story elements (characters, settings, events, etc) are most commonly included by members of both groups. We have then compared the two groups to determine differences and similarities.

Faculty Mentor: Brent Archer, PhD   Department: Communication Sciences and Disorders -  Bowling Green State University

A comparative analysis of informational content in a descriptive narrative task completed by people with aphasia and age-matched neurogenically non-injured peers

* Narrative .docx
Download Project Narrative Here.

Young children sometimes substitute pronouns, for example, saying ‘her goes’ instead of ‘she goes.’ Seventeen four-year-olds’ use of third person pronouns (i.e. he, she, they, her, him, them) was assessed with both a formal test and an informal play-based language sample. This study compares pronoun use across the two assessment settings. The percentage of correct pronoun use was calculated from the language samples, and pronoun attempts on the formal assessment were counted. Out of the 17 children observed, ten children had perfect pronoun use on the informal assessment, and eight children attempted all pronouns in the play-based language sample. The percentage of correct third person subject pronouns during play predicted the number of attempts on the formal assessment. Specifically, children with higher play-based pronoun accuracy were more likely to attempt pronouns on the formal test.

Faculty Mentor: Colleen Fitzgerald, PhD   Department: Communication Sciences and Disorders - Bowling Green State University

Attempts at subject pronouns across assessments in preschoolers

* Attempts at subject pronouns across assessments in preschoolers.pptx
Download PowerPoint Presentation with Audio Narration Here.

Department of Human Services

Criminal Justice

Approximately 1,600 police officers across the United States were arrested for sex-related crimes during the ten year period, 2005-2014. The arrested officers were employed by more than 1,100 state and local law enforcement agencies located in all fifty states and the District of Columbia. These data suggest that police sexual violence is a problem involving more than a few “bad apples” and that the phenomenon of police sexual violence may be a cultural norm within the police subculture at many state and local law enforcement agencies across the country. Additional findings will be reported in support of the hypothesis.

Faculty Mentor: Philip Stinson, PhD   Department: Human Services: Criminal Justice - Bowling Green State University

Additional Contributors: John Liederbach, Robert Taylor, Chloe Wentzlof

Police Sexual Violence A Few Bad Apples or a Cultural Norm 2

The purpose of this study is to inform the public about law enforcement officers who have been arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs. Using Stinson’s (2019) data set of police crime across the United States, the sample consists of 1,570 cases where police officers were arrested for driving under the influence during the years 2005 to 2014. This study describes the circumstances of the DUI arrest of police officers. The poster presents data on details of the crime, officer demographics, criminal case deposition, and final adverse employment outcome.

Faculty Mentor: Philip Stinson, PhD   Department: Human Services: Criminal Justice - Bowling Green State University

Moran kate 

Social Work

Grief after loss is one of the most predominant life changes after spousal loss among older Americans. Suitable adapting procedures must be executed to keep up elevated levels of physical and mental well-being, as delayed grieving or poor coping strategies in the grieving process among Caucasian older adults may affect their physical and psychological health (Holland et al, 2013). This research was to identify common coping strategies among older Caucasian Americans who have experienced spousal loss. Using a mixed methodology, data were collected through survey and semi-structured interviews. Participants were asked about demographic questions, coping strategies (The Brief COPE) and grief recovery experiences. A total of 33 participants, predominantly females (84%) participated in the study. Findings indicated that there is no gender difference in coping strategies among older Caucasian Americans, and the majority (81%) of participants did not have any recovery program after their spousal loss. Findings from open ended questions through the survey indicated that some participants expressed concern of loneliness, financial issues, and worry over loved ones after the death of their spouse, while others did not declare major distress and rather accepted the passing. While older Caucasian Americans mostly used emotional-focused coping and the attempt to accept the passing of their partner, the majority initially struggled emotionally and turned to coping mechanisms as a tool for distraction rather than acceptance. Although there are some discrepancies, based on our findings with a small sample size, we suggest that older Caucasian Americans seek support through the help of peers, recovery programs, and the implementation of spirituality. These types of support systems are effective in assisting the overall well-being of older Caucasian American’s during the grief period.

Faculty Mentor: HeeSoon Lee, PhD   Department: Human Services - Social Work - Bowling Green State University

Caucasian American Grief Recovery After Spousal Death Social Work Bainbridge Sandwisch Wamser 

The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast how different races and genders cope with loss and grief, specifically when it grieving after losing their spouse. The issue that we are focusing on this study is to show that African Americans experience higher levels of complicated grief symptoms and lack of financial and emotional support compared to the Caucasians, especially when they spent less time speaking to others about their loss experiences. Participants in the study included 22 African Americans with females being 17 participants while men were 5 participants. It shows that females were more dominant with 31% out of 22 participants in the study. Results found indicated there are no statistical differences in coping strategies between males and females since p value was greater than 0.5%. Many African Americans (81%) reported that they did not go through a recovery program. Individuals admitted to wanting help but did not have the resources or finance to get the help they needed in order to move past the experience of losing their spouse. African Americans mostly used emotion-focused coping (ex. acceptance) and least used substance use in the different coping mechanisms. We suggested that the individuals go to church more and spend time with family members and important individuals around them since that was shown to be the best outcome for African Americans to get through the hardships of losing a spouse.

Faculty Mentor: HeeSoon Lee, PhD   Department: Human Services - Social Work - Bowling Green State University

Berry Chambers Poster 

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In Ohio, there are roughly 900 nursing homes (NHs) offering services to older adults. Within NHs there are a variety of job opportunities for health and human service professionals ranging from: registered nurses, certified nursing assistants, physical therapists, social workers, and dieticians. As an undergraduate student in human development and family studies, and a masters-candidate within interdisciplinary gerontology, the presenting author found that working on an interdisciplinary research team with faculty across Universities, (CAHS School of Social Work & BGSU’s Department of Human Services) was instrumental in her overall development as an emerging certified long-term care administrator. Under the leadership of research faculty, a systematic review of the literature (N=16) was conducted on the role of Social Workers in NHs. The purpose of this poster is to showcase how leveraging these interdisciplinary efforts to include social work and allied health care professionals was found to expand the students’ understanding, thus promoting comprehension of the larger health care delivery system in implementing best care practices. Attendees will gain perspective regarding benefits of student engagement and faculty-led mentorship, with an interdisciplinary gerontological perspective. Findings suggest that this is essential in providing the most comprehensive and effective quality of care to older adults.

Faculty Mentor: Vivian Miller, PhD   Department: Human Services - Social Work - Bowling Green State University

BurnsCURS Interdisciplinary Team Final 

A recent report from the United Nations has revealed the disproportionally high rates of poverty in the United States compared to other developed countries (United Nations General Assembly, 2018). Keeping these statistics in mind, it is important to recognize how this subject matter is being taught and how it may affect social work practice. The purpose of this research is to explore the current research on teaching social work students about the high rates of poverty. A literature review was conducted to summarize the existing teaching methods and identify themes on teaching throughout social work programs in America. After reviewing the research, suggestions were made on how social work programs can effectively address poverty.

Faculty Mentor: Jordan Wilfong, PhD   Department: Human Services - Social Work - Bowling Green State University

Fulfilling our Mission: A Literature Review of Poverty Content in Social Work Education

The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess the current level of caregiver burden at Ohio Living Hospice in Toledo. This study was part of the Bowling Green State University’s Bachelors of Science in Social Work Program’s Spring 2020 Integrative Seminar and Internship. This survey was administered by the social work intern Emily Cross to 13 patients enrolled in Ohio Living Hospice in Toledo during February 2020 until March 2020. The scholarly question for this study is: What level of caregiver burden are informal caregivers of patients enrolled in Ohio Living Hospice in Toledo experiencing? This study used a standardized survey to collect quantifiable data to critically evaluate the level of caregiver burden among informal caregivers caring for hospice patients at home.

Faculty Mentor: Matthew Molnar   Department: Human Services- Social Work - Bowling Green State University

Caregiver Burden at Ohio Living Hospice Toledo: An Exploratory Research Project

This research project seeks to explore interventions for students who experience communication apprehension in the classroom. Instances where students experience communication apprehension includes activities such as speaking when called on during class, giving an oral presentation, and raising their hand to ask a question. Finding effective interventions for students struggling with communication apprehension is important, as this issue can be detrimental to their learning experience and future careers. The project’s anticipated outcomes include identifying and evaluating effective interventions to utilize for college students experiencing communication apprehension and gaining a better understanding of communication apprehension in the classroom.

Faculty Mentors: Jordan Wilfong, PhD and Jeanelle Sears, PhD  Department: Human Services - Social Work - Bowling Green State University

Grass Stephanie

The population of older adults is growing at a rapid rate. By the year 2034, the population of older Americans will reach 77 million (United States Census Bureau, 2019). These numbers are similarly represented within the criminal justice system; older adults account for approximately 10 percent of the total population within prisons and jails (Snyder, 2012 in Ahalt, Buisker, Myers, & Williams, 2019). Further research addresses the unique challenges older adults in the criminal justice system face, such as the accelerated deterioration of their physical and mental health. Upon their release, successful reintegration can be attributed to recognizing all factors that will affect the reentry process for this population. The implementation of programs or resources for older adults that address those factors is also key. Through the lens of ecosystems perspective and by utilizing the eco-map tool, a holistic approach to reintegration can be established, recognizing the general necessities of older adults reentering into society while also acknowledging the specific needs that can arise for the individual. Furthermore, this research seeks to address how the NASW Code of Ethics is reflected in the holistic approach to reintegration for older adults, and the critical role a social worker can play in the reintegration process.

Faculty Mentor: Vivian Miller, PhD   Department: Human Services- Social Work - Bowling Green State UniversityHorner Bethany jpg

Grief and loss are normal processes that humans experience, but there are some differences in how different cultures process these experiences. According to Carr (2004), African American culture tends to lean on their faith to get through their loss, whereas Caucasian Americans tend to reach out to close family for support. The purpose of this study is to examine how grief after spousal loss plays a role between Caucasian Americans and African Americans. A semi-structured interview and survey (the Brief COPE) were used to collect the data. A total of 55 individuals (33 Caucasians and 22 African Americans; mean age 66.48; 84% females) participated in the study. Participants were asked questions regarding demographics, coping strategies, quality of life, and grief recovery experiences. The survey also included open-ended questions such as “What programs or services helped you cope with your loss?” An overarching trend saw that Caucasian Americans and African Americans found comfort in confiding in friends/family and going to church respectively. Researchers used a SPSS program, demographic statistics (frequency and Crosstabs) and an independent Samples T-test to analyze the data. Researchers found that Caucasian Americans and African Americans commonly used emotional-focused coping strategies such as positive reframing, acceptance, and religion, although African Americans were more likely to use religion as a coping mechanism. After analyzing the data, researchers found that African Americans reported higher ratings of their quality of life, but lower ratings in regard to overall health when compared to their Caucasian counterparts. It was also found that only 18.2% of Caucasian Americans and 19% of African Americans had any experience with grief recovery programs after their spousal loss. This suggests a lack of grief recovery programs, and therefore a need to create more programs and educate widows/widowers about them.

Faculty Mentor: HeeSoon Lee, PhD   Department: Human Services - Social Work - Bowling Green State University

ethnicdiff socialwork jensen need wagner 

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Department of Public and Allied Health

Public Health Program

The HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa has been a public health crisis for decades, accounting for well over two-thirds of all HIV cases worldwide. South Africa is one of the countries most impacted by the HIV virus that much of the global scientific community considers to be a social justice issue. About 13.4% of South Africa’s general population is living with HIV/AIDS, driving the purpose of this project to investigate why a country regarded by the United Nations as having a mid-to-high economic status is struggling with an issue that is widely referred to as a socio-economic crisis. Funded by the Hoskins Global Scholars program and BGSU Honors College, this project served as an experiential learning opportunity with Child Family Health International, a global partner of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. This project examined the South African healthcare system through the lens of its HIV/AIDS crisis via healthcare rotations in the city of Durban, Kwazulu-Natal. The findings of the project support that poor social determinants of health greatly exacerbated the HIV/AIDS epidemic, yet surprisingly revealed that many South African citizens, healthcare providers and educators attribute the severity of the country’s epidemic to the restriction of antiretroviral medications - a political decision made in the early 2000s that that the South African healthcare system is still dealing with the repercussions of to this day, even as the country grows in economic status and international recognition.

Faculty Mentor: Sharon Schaeffer   Department: Public and Allied Health Public Health - Bowling Green State University

Managing the Sleeping Germ: an experiential narrative of the implications that political decisions had on exacerbating the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa

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A Pilot Study to Examine Nurses’ Perceptions of Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Education in Long-term Care Facilities Background: Many older adults (40%) in the US aged 65-80 are sexually active (American Association of Retired People [AARP], 2018) yet report less condom use, fewer STD screenings, and lower risk perceptions of STDs than their younger counterparts (Syme, Cohn, & Barnack-Tavalaris, 2017). Since more than 1.5 million nurse employees work in LTCFs in the US (CDC, 2013), examining perceptions of STD education from the nurses’ perspective allows for insight into why STD education in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) remains rare among this vulnerable population. Methods: As a pilot study to examine both current STD education practices and perceptions of STD education, a four-page mailed survey was sent to all LTCF Directors of Nursing (DONs) in Northwest Ohio (n=99) with a response rate of 29% (n=29). DON’s were the target population as they are the most likely employee to hold Registered Nurse licensure. The Health Belief Model formed the basis for the 21-item survey. Results: Respondents were predominately female (97%), Caucasian/White (83%), over 40 years of age (76%), with an Associate degree as their highest level of education (52%). Only 2 nurses stated their LTCF provides STD education to their residents while 4 nurses stated their LTCF provides condoms. Almost all nurses were supportive of STD education at their facility (97%) but previous education on how to address STDs among residents was rare, with 86% of nurses having had no formal training. Overwhelmingly, nurses did not see STDs or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as problems among their residents (100% and 96%, respectively) yet support for sex in LTCFs was high. All (100%) agreed sex among married residents should be supported while 75% agreed sex among non-married residents should be supported. Furthermore, 89% believed LTCFs should provide private spaces for intimate partner visits. Most nurses stated they were comfortable discussing HIV risk (86%), STD risk (86%), erectile dysfunction (76%), sexual desire and intimacy (68%), and correct condom use (66%). The most commonly perceived barriers to providing STD education were family opposition (62%), resident embarrassment (52%), limited time (48%), and lack of education on STD prevalence among older adults (48%). The most commonly perceived benefits were being seen as a leading LTCF within the community (66%), promotion of healthy sexual relationships (55%), improved health of residents (45%), and improved knowledge of STDs among residents (45%). Conclusions: There is a clear disconnect between what the evidence says in terms of STD risk among older adults and what nurses are perceiving as problems among their residents. There was strong support for STD education among nurses in our study though implementation remains rare. Addressing the most commonly perceived barriers and benefits may prove beneficial in increasing the number of LTCFs that provide STD education to residents.

Faculty Mentor: Lauren Maziarz, PhD   Department: Public and Allied Health - Public Health - Bowling Green State University

Masters/Doctoral Contributors: Courtney Wagner

Sorgi Wagner Bowsher

Williams County, Ohio faces many challenges not unlike similar rural towns across the United States. Stark health disparities among zip codes, population flight, limited access to affordable housing, mental health and drug abuse concerns, and limited access to healthcare top the list of distresses (Williams County Health District, 2017). What has become even more alarming to community officials are disparities in mortality rates. The average age of death varies by 9 years depending on which zip code you live in. While recent quantitative data tells a story of deep health disparities there is no consensus among community leaders in terms of how to proceed. The purpose of this project is to gain a better understanding of community concerns in Williams County from the residents’ perspective. A series of focus groups were to be conducted across several demographics. Specifically, this project will address the following research questions: 1) What do community residents see as the most significant concerns in terms of housing, employment, workforce development, community quality, governance, and public health? and 2) What solutions do residents propose for improving the overall community?

Faculty Mentors: Lauren Maziarz, PhD and Philip Welch, PhD   Department: Public and Allied Health - Public Health - Bowling Green State University

Rosenberg Wilcher jpg

Food and Nutrition

College can be an exciting time for many first-year students as new environments often expose students to different experiences. One aspect of students’ lives that often gets altered is their diet and amount of physical activity. New eating patterns and drinking in excess can lead to negative health effects for students. In addition, activity levels of college students tend to decrease as they are often no longer involved in strenuous athletic sports. Personal well-being is often pushed aside as students are focused on so many other aspects of college life including social life, work, and education. All of these changes in lifestyle behaviors can act as precursors to obesity. As this is often the first time many students live on their own, it is important to give students the resources they need to keep themselves healthy; both mentally and physically. Prevalence of prediabetes has increased dramatically over the past few years, and our research project has focused on its impact on first-year college students at BGSU.

Faculty Mentor: Mary-Jon Ludy, PhD   Department: Public and Allied Health- Dietetics - Bowling Green State University

Giesken Chelsea 

Are you looking for a creative way to introduce a variety of health-related topics in the college setting? First-year students in BGSU’s Health, Wellness, and You Learning Community are gaining knowledge about health-related issues by viewing brief animated case study videos, paired with interactive discussion. In this poster session, you will learn about student-generated ideas for facilitating discussions and learn about affordable platforms that are used to develop animated videos.

Faculty Mentor: Mary-Jon Ludy, PhD   Department: Public and Allied Health Dietetics - Bowling Green State University

Siebeneck Breece  

Honey is a popular sweetener that has seen a recent increase in demand. Because of this popularity it is of growing importance to understand its functionality. This study is focused on the sensory differences (if any) caused by raw versus processed honey in a lacto fermentative process. The main research question to be answered is the following: Does raw honey in lacto fermented ketchup produce a product with sensory differences from the same product fermented with processed honey? To answer this, two ketchup products (one made with raw honey and one with processed honey) will undergo lacto fermentation. A sensory test will then be conducted. If a sensory difference between the lacto fermented ketchup products is found, there is reason to believe processing honey inhibits or removes bioactive compounds which may effect the lacto fermentation process.

Faculty Mentor: Jonathan Kershaw, PhD   Department: Public and Allied Health - Dietetics -  Bowling Green State University

Brubaker Chloe 

The purpose of this study was to evaluate emotional eating, food security, and dietary intake among older adults participating in home delivered meal service programs. Home delivered meals are a fitting way to provide adequate nutrition in the homebound population that have difficulty shopping for, preparing, and producing meals. Elderly individuals are at a greater risk of food insecurity largely due to financial strain (low/fixed incomes) and waning physical strength associated with aging.1 By definition, food insecurity (FI) occurs when the availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or the ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways is limited or uncertain.2 FI is strongly associated with income levels, however it is not limited to people living in poverty. According to Feeding America, in 2016, Ohio had 11,614,373 individuals impacted by food insecurity, amounting to approximately 15.1% of the population in the state of Ohio.3 Overall in the United States in the same year, there were 4.9 million food insecure elderly, which amounts to 1 in 12 seniors.4 To combat food insecurity, more home delivered meal programs are being created. Participants of home delivered meals have been shown to have increased strength and improve their ability to function in activities of daily living.5 Currently in the U.S., 9% of elderly suffer from food insecurity, these programs offer a service that can make a large impact on this number. 6

Faculty Mentor: Kerri Knippen, PhD   Department: Public and Allied Health - Dietetics - Bowling Green State University

Swindell Marissa  

College of Musical Arts

During the Winter Session of January 2020, I traveled abroad to Morocco for a course on music and healing, directed by Dr. Christopher Witulski.  Throughout the class, we observed and participated in a variety of musical performances, such as Issawa, Hamadsha, Gnawa, and more, while exploring the culture and daily life of Morocco.  My project consisted of expanding beyond the course to research Moroccan musical culture and explore ways in which I can incorporate these experiences into my own future teaching as a music educator.  I learned about the role of music in everyday life, how music is taught and shared within a community and throughout generations, and intricacies of Moroccan musical structures and instrumental techniques that were not part of the course.  The question I wanted to explore through my project was: As a music educator, how can I develop the knowledge and skill set needed to represent and teach Moroccan music in a sensitive, respect, and impactful way that provides my students experiential learning opportunities?  

Faculty Mentor: Christopher Witulski, PhD   Department: Ethnomusicology - Bowling Green State University

Exploring Moroccan Music through Experiential Learning

Our presentation will explore the ways in which composers can create new music for late intermediate and early advanced pianists that bridges the gap between more standard repertoire and difficult contemporary works. Our presentation will focus on a piece we had commissioned using our CURS grant award.

Faculty Mentor: Robert Satterlee   Department: Piano - Bowling Green State University

Maser Oliveira  

College of Technology, Architecture and Applied Engineering

Engineering Technologies

As the autonomy of vehicles becomes more prominent, there is an urgent need for reliable data acquisition sensors. A primary function of these devices is to be utilized for object detections. When taking into account different speeds and velocities, reliability, quick data processing, and high degrees of accuracy are important qualities for a good detection system. In said situations, LIDARS prove to be the appropriate tool. This study analyzes how LIDAR technology from SLAMTEC can be incorporated into a model vehicle to provide object detection. The primary focus is the comprehension of LIDAR data. Through the manipulation of the Software Development Kit from SLAMTEC, the study will build a communication bridge between the LIDAR data and the algorithm that will control the steering of the model vehicle.

Faculty Mentors: Resmi Krishnankuttyrema and Mikhail Shilov   Department: Engineering Technologies - Bowling Green State University

Autonomous Driving RC Car/LIDAR Detection

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The desire to develop an automobile, without the need of a human operator, has nearly as long as automobiles themselves. It is only recently, however, that the technology has been able to meet desire. Google, Lyft, Uber, Tesla, GM, Ford, and many more companies, currently have autonomous vehicles that are being developed. Together, all this definitively shows the future for automobile exists within automation, and as students in the engineering realm, understanding the technologies driving autonomous vehicles is paramount. The scholarly question that we seek to answer is the following – How to produce a vehicle that will learn to drive autonomously and avoid obstacles using computer vision and machine learning, utilizing a camera in coordination with various sensors. In order to answer this question, a small test model will be produced as a proof of concept.

Faculty Mentor: Mikhail Shilov, PhD   Department: Engineering Technology - Bowling Green State University

Autonomous Racer: Computer Vision and Machine Learning

The outcome of the project will be identifying and quantifying building energy saving opportunities on the building energy effeteness perspective. The utility cost saving will help BG high school reduce the operational cost. The energy saving will improve the energy efficiency in BG high school and makes BG community towards sustainable development With the current situation of Covid-19 we will be presenting what all goes into a lean energy analysis and we will depict this on a poster.

Faculty Mentor: Qi Guo, PhD   Department: Engineering Technology - Bowling Green State University

Lean Energy Analysis Poster  1  

In fall 2019 and through spring 2020, we began studying first generation college students here at Bowling Green State University in the College of Technology, Architecture, and Applied Engineering. We did so by gathering information through a literature review focused on first generation college students to try and understand their challenges and learn about the methods and approaches used by different universities for their support. We have compiled this literature review and are working towards conducting a survey to analyze the data in detail to see if we can draw any significant conclusions.

Faculty Mentor: Resmi Krishnankuttyrema   Department: Engineering Technology - Bowling Green State University

Poster Spring 2020 KRichmond Final 

The main purpose of this project was to perform an energy audit on Bowling Green High School so that we can- 1). Learn how to analyze energy consumption, cost in electricity and natural gas. 2). Learn how to decompose a building’s electricity charge into energy charge, demand charge, power charge and service charge. 3). Learn how to reduce energy charge and demand charge. However, with the current situation going on with COVID-19 we unfortunately have been held back. Instead, this poster is going to be elaborating on baseline analysis, one of the first steps on building energy audits.

Faculty Mentor: Qi Guo, Phd   Department: Engineering Technology - Bowling Green State University

Keckler Yumul 

Visual Communication and Technology Education

On the most basic level, Project Leaf Year is an environmentally focused page-a-day desk calendar. However, a deeper look shows the calendar is a tool to promote an overarching environmental movement. This calendar is sustainable in both its construction and its purpose involving sustainable manufacturing, spiral-binding, and reusable considerations. The calendar itself includes nature photographs from local artists, daily tasks to promote conservation efforts, and supplemental educational information (either through website articles or videos) for the purpose of inspiring individuals to make environmentally conscious decisions.

Faculty Mentor: Jerry Schnepp, PhD   Department: Visual Communication Technology - Bowling Green State University

Godfrey Allie 

A presentation of innovative research methods designed to assess the usefulness and usability of software interaction for assistance in meditation practice.

Faculty Mentor: Jerry Schnepp, PhD   Department: Visual Communication Technology - Bowling Green State University

User Experience Research for Mobile Application Development

School of the Built Environment

This study was designed to analyze aging residential building envelopes. Two eras of American construction, existing between 1840 and 1945, were included in this analysis. Thermal imaging was used to compare materiality and temperature variations in the external construction of homes with three different construction styles and a multitude of modern modifications. Building materials, methods and alterations were noted whenever possible and used for a comparative analysis.

Faculty Mentor: Arsenio Rodrigues, PhD   Department: School of the Built Environment - Bowling Green State University

Krodel Betty Poster 2 of 2 

Research completed in the summer of 2019 was a continuation of an ongoing project designed to answer the question, "How can we effectively preserve and renovate aging U.S. housing to maintain value in sustainable and fiscally accessible ways?” In this study, three neighborhoods around Dayton, Ohio were chosen for analysis. Each of these neighborhoods represent a type of American residential construction that was unique to its' time. Data was collect from residents and neighborhood association members regarding their homes' ability to maintain thermal comfort, function for daily life and perceived energy efficiency.

Faculty Mentor: Sara Khorshidifard, PhD   Department: School of the Built Environment - Bowling Green State University

Krodel Betty Poster 1 of 2 

Endless speculation is a collection of work conceived in the spring of 2018. This work is a direct influence of my exposure & fascination with the utopian architects of the 1960's and 1970's. In specific, the representation & attitude of the work during this time period is something that I strive to emulate as I finish my undergraduate architectural studies. The is volume consist of seven mixed media drawings done on Durlar Sheets along with a written statement. This project is meant to compliment the speculative ontological research of Dr. Sara Korshidifard at Bowling Green State University, and use the platform as an opportunity for exploration.

Faculty Mentor: Aresenio Rodrigues, PhD   Department: School of the Built Environment - Bowling Green State University

Endless Speculation

* Endless Speculation.pptx
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Forensic Science

Most THC exists in marijuana plants as the carboxylic acid form (THCA). Laws regarding marijuana often concern the amount of THC in the plant samples, but measuring the amount of THC inadvertently converts THCA into THC and skews the results. Using the heat from inside a GC/MS, the conversion rate of THCA to THC was looked at. Unfortunately, THC stuck to the glass insides of the machine and affected the data. Future research efforts will focus on how to prevent this confounding effect.

Faculty Mentor: Travis Worst   Department: Forensic Science - Bowling Green State University

Conversion Rate of THCA-A to THC Inside A GC/MS

The cyanoacrylate fuming chamber is a common instrument in the field of Latent Fingerprint Examination, because it is beneficial in the further processing of latent (unseen) fingerprints analysis.  The optimization of the cyanoacrylate fuming chamber allows for its best usage in the further processing of the latent print in the. My research involved the adjustment of several factors for optimizing the cyanoacrylate fuming chamber. The factors that  were adjusted for my research were the amount of superglue used in the chamber, the relative humidity inside the chamber, and the length of how long the cyanoacrylate fuming process was run. The significance of the data from this research is not only vital to the future of criminal justice, but also provides important data for further studies on the optimization of the cyanoacrylate fuming chamber.

Faculty Mentor: Jeffrey Lynn  Department: Forensic Science - Bowling Green State University

Megan Gayer

Firelands Campus

Background: The Old Woman Creek (OWC) estuary is one of Ohio’s few remaining freshwater natural wetlands along the shore of Lake Erie. Wetlands such as OWC play an important role in transforming nutrients entering the wetlands and  reducing nutrient loading to Lake Erie. Nutrient load reduction is important for controlling harmful algal blooms.    Goal: A major goal of this project is to understand the role of OWC in altering nutrient concentrations. To realize this goal, we have measured concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus at the estuary’s inflow and outflow to understand how these concentrations change as water flows through the estuary.    Methods: Water samples were collected at weekly intervals between 2016-2018 at both inlet and the outlet points of the estuary. Concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, Total Kjedahl Nitrogen (TKN), Total phosphorus (TP), Soluble Reactive Phosphorus, and Total Dissolved Solids (TSS) were measured using standard EPA methods.    Results:  Nitrate-nitrite concentrations decreased as water moved through the estuary indicating that the wetland was functioning as a nutrient sink.  Chloride concentrations also decreased at the outlet when compared to the inlet. However, concentrations of particulate constituents (TP, TKN and TSS) exiting the estuary increased during the same time interval as predicted by conceptual models proposed at the estuary. These results will help in understanding how freshwater estuaries process nutrients and can possibly help guide wetland restoration in Lake Erie. The preservation and restoration of coastal wetlands is hence important for mitigation of algal blooms. 

Faculty Mentor: Subhalakshmi Nagarajan, PhD   Department: Natural and Social Sciences- BGSU Firelands

Analysis of Water Quality and Study of Nutrient Concentrations at Old Woman Creek Estuarine Reserve

Television has the ability to shape public opinion and define the reality surrounding the people and regions that are depicted in popular programming. In the last twenty years, the Hollywood idea of life in the Midwest has been based on a bumbling and hapless misrepresentation of the people and culture of this region. TV shows like Raising Hope, The Middle, Parks & Recreation and The Office depict life in the Midwest as being out of trend, behind the times, unfashionable, and based on low culture working class families. This is usually in direct contrast with TV shows set in cultural city centers like Los Angeles, Chicago and New York. This has set a running trend in Hollywood to set up Midwest culture as inferior to that of its coastal neighbors. My research for this paper is rooted in Media Framing Theory and Media Cultivation Theory, with a focus on the research of George Gerbner. These theories supply the framework for proposing that Hollywood could be framing an entire region in an unflattering light, either intentionally or unintentionally. This problem has been growing right in front of us for years, but it has gone un-analyzed as it is easily brushed off as purely entertainment and, therefore, not subject to much analytical scrutiny. Presenting only the caricature version of a group of people can negatively impact the collective identity of those people and spark inherent resentment in young people raised in that culture. My research shows the negative repercussions this could be having in the Midwest, primarily the supposed need felt by young Midwestern academics and intellectuals to seek opportunity in larger urban areas instead of building up their home regions with innovative thinking and work ethic.

Faculty Mentor: Raymond Schuck, PhD   Department: Communication - BGSU Firelands

Ollervides Nicholas

University Libraries

As a black music student here at BGSU, it is my goal to promote the music of other black composers and performers among my peers. Through my three-semester music history core curriculum in the College of Music, there was only one day that focused on black composers/performers. Last year, I spearheaded a sound installation in the Moore Musical Arts Center called Music History IV, which critiqued the lack of racial inclusion in our music history curriculum. For this project, I hope to continue projects like this by bringing "Pop the Music Bubble" into a second season. With this season, I will utilize the facilities at the Music Library and Bill Schurk Sound Archives to find these resources and present them to the public. I would like to use this grant to help me record these podcasts and get them posted on Liguides. In addition to recording podcasts and presenting found materials, I would also like to promote my fellow musicians who are performing black music here at BGSU. Therefore, I plan to also record clips of the music that they are working on to incorporate into the podcast as I talk about different songs. This project will provide supplementary materials for music history and popular culture classes as well as promoting the collections of the Music Library and Bill Schurk Sound Archives. 

Faculty Mentor: David Lewis   Department: University Libraries- Music Library and Bill Schurk Sound Archives - Bowling Green State University

Pop! the Music Bubble

* Pop! the Music Bubble.pptx
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I wanted to experience west coast culture while exploring architecture, local artists, and designers. I planned to capture the art, culture, and social issues of California through photos and videos. Since I had never been to the west coast, I wanted to share my thoughts on everything as well as show what it’s like for other people who can’t go to California. I created a video about the trip as well as the experiences throughout my two weeks on the west coast.

Faculty Mentor: Kim Fleshman   Department: University Libraries- The Collab Lab - Bowling Green State University

Cali Culture

* CaliCulture.pptx
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