2021 Undergraduate Symposium on Research and Scholarship

2021 Undergraduate Symposium on Research and Scholarship

Welcome to our Virtual Event!

Welcome to our annual Undergraduate Symposium for Research and Scholarship!

Because of the unprecedented circumstances due to COVID-19 we decided to move our symposium this year to an online forum to ensure the safety of all our students, faculty, and staff. We are proud to present over 90 research, scholarly, and creative projects by over 100 undergraduate students from a wide range of fields and disciplines. In addition to students from our institution, we are also very excited to host presentations by students from two other regional institutions (The University of Toledo and Ohio Northern University). Please help us celebrate all of these students’ accomplishments by sharing the link for this page widely. For any questions or comments, please contact Dr. Cordula Mora (director of the Center for Undergraduate Research and Scholarship) at cmora@bgsu.edu.  To our guests with disabilities, please also email Dr. Cordula Mora, if you need special services, assistance or appropriate modifications to fully participate in this event.


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Biological Sciences

Name:                          Sophia Spivey
Major:                          Forensic Science
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                      Raymond Larsen

The TolQ region of the Tol system plays a key role in the maturation of the P1 bacteriophage into a host. It is known that TolQ is important for the subsequent development and release of new P1 virus from its host, but it is not known how. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of model organisms that the P1 virion infects. Previous studies have discovered that P1 is capable of moving DNA from one bacterial strain to another by process of generalized transduction. Working with P1 presented multiple challenges in timing and contamination, but Dr. Larsen and I spent time figuring out why some results did not match what they should be at first. I set up cell cultures and then picked a colony. From there, I tested the positive and negative controls to make sure they worked as they were supposed to and to further prove we were working with the correct P1 strains. In order to test for P1 sensitivity, ∆QRA 1016 and ∆QR 1035 were used with the specific P1 strains and plated on chloramphenicol LB plates. In the future I hope to create and test TolQ gene mutations to identify which areas of this region support P1 maturation and still support TolQ function.

Name:                         Evelyn Maciejewski
Major:                         Marine and Aquatic Biology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Jeff Miner

Larval fishes (generally 10-15 mm in length) must transition from feeding endogenously on yolk to foraging for zooplankton prey (McElman and Balon 1979; Zorn et al. 2020). Because these larval fishes must transition successfully in a short period of time (days), the availability of prey is considered to be very important. This availability need has led to the Match-Mismatch Hypothesis describing survivorship value of making this transition to exogenous feeding at the time when prey (zooplankton) is at high density (Cushing 1990; Langangen et al. 2014). Through the dissertation research by PhD candidate Christopher Kemp, who is trying to understand the ecological relationships between a local fish species of importance (Walleye Sander vitreus), their prey, and heterogeneity I have identified the zooplankton species (Masson et at. 2004; Casper and Thorp 2007; Fraker et al. 2015). For this research, they collected zooplankton (prey) and larval fishes in a grid throughout this nursery habitat of upper Sandusky Bay. Mr. Kemp processed all of the larval fish collections looking for Walleye and the zooplankton samples when Walleye were at peak abundance while I identified the zooplankton species and the distributions of them during the spring of 2018 within the Sandusky Bay. My research questions will focus on the overall spatial and temporal distribution of zooplankton in this system through the spring when larval fishes are present. I have also compared my sample results to that of two other data sets looked over by other students to see if other times within the spring these concentrations are slightly different.

Name:                         Leila Oswalt
Major:                         Chemistry with Biochemistry Specialization
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Raymond Larsen

In response to the upsurge in multiple drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, bacteriophage (or simply, “phage”) therapy has been highly researched as an alternative method to treat MDR bacterial infections. Urinary tract infections are among the most common pathological human infections that rely heavily on the use of antibiotics, the major cause of which is the bacterium Escherichia coli. This Spring, I examined an existing set of E. coli-specific phage isolated by the Larsen lab from environmental sources as well as isolated new phage that target various strains of E. coli from samples from Windsor, Canada and the greater Northern Ohio area (Upper Sandusky, Perrysburg, and Archbold). Before these samples were treated with chloroform to kill any existing cells, wild type E. coli were also isolated against which both the existing set of phage as well as the new set were tested. The wild type strains were tested for antibiotic resistance alongside the uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain, CFT073. Both the existing and new sets of phage were tested against CFT073 to determine the strain’s susceptibility to them. Before purification of the genomic DNA of the new phage could be conducted in order to screen for undesirable laterally transferable virulence or antimicrobial resistance determinants/genes, each phage was tested on laboratory adapted E. coli strains with certain protein deletions in order to determine if any phage were dependent upon certain binding sites on these proteins. Further research must be conducted to genetically identify the new phage.

Name:                         Dawson Holt
Major:                         Biology with a Specialization in Marine and Aquatic Biology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Chris Ward

Planktothrix spp. are typically the dominant phytoplankton found in the yearly harmful algae blooms (HABs) which occur in Lake Erie’s Sandusky Bay. In the summer of 2020, the typical HAB did not materialize, instead a Scenedesmus spp. dominated bloom materialized. One hypothesis as to why no HAB materialized is that lack of pesticide application in 2019 due to many fields going unplanted caused low levels of residual herbicides, allowing Scenedesmus to have the advantage. In this study I investigated the effects of the herbicide glyphosate on Planktothrix agardhii and Scenedesmus sp. cultured simultaneously to determine if it may play a role in Planktothrix’s ability to dominate HABs. Cultures were grown in T75 cell culture flask containing 50 mL of Bristol’s Freshwater Media. Each culture was started by adding different ratios of P. agardhii and Scenedesmus sp. (1:1, 2:1, 4:1) as measured with a Fluoroprobe, glyphosate (Round Up Weed and Grass Killer Concentrate Plus) was then added in order for the culture to have a concentration for either 1µM or 5µM. Under normal growing conditions Scenedesmus out competes Planktothrix rapidly becoming the dominate phytoplankton present in the culture in a matter of days and assays determining the effect of glyphosate on Planktothrix- Scenedesmus competition are ongoing.

* Effects of Starting Ratios and Glyphosate Con_Dawson Holt.pdf
Effects of Starting Ratios and Glyphosate TRANSCRIPT
* Effects of Starting Ratios and Glyphosate Con_Dawson Holt.jpg
Effects of Starting Ratios and Glyphosate Con_Dawson Holt POSTER

Name:                         Linnea Forbes
Major:                         Biology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Karen Sirum

As part of both a personal endeavor and an academic project, I have investigated the aetiology and treatment of seemingly idiopathic and debilitating leg pain in a patient over the past 10 years. Via collaboration with medical professionals at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, Cincinnati Premier Physical Therapy, and Cincinnati Women’s TriHealth, I have identified sources of pain at the anatomical level. The combination of internal femoral torsion, external tibial torsion, pes planus, and bony fusions appear to be major perpetuators of the pain. An effective treatment continues to be evasive. To date, I have attempted to find answers through genetic approaches, neurological approaches, and orthopaedic approaches. At this point, none have yielded progress. One hypothesis proposes that the patient may represent a unique and previously undiagnosed syndrome. A greater understanding of how her maladaptive anatomical structure and neuromuscular functions interact may increase the likelihood of developing an effective pain management plan.

Name:                         Natalie Lewis
Major:                         Biochemistry
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Jill Zeilstra-Ryalls

The growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides wild type strain 2.4.1 is inhibited by the presence of exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). This is paradoxical in that, at the same time, ALA is an essential metabolite of all cells, and, as is true of many organisms, R. sphaeroides makes its own ALA. For nearly 30 years, it has been known that, in contrast to the wild type strain, growth of mutant strain AT1 is insensitive to exogenous ALA. It is predicted that comparing the DNA sequence of the AT1 genome to that of the 2.4.1 genome will provide clues as to the basis of this differential ALA sensitivity. DNA sequencing has been performed using two methodologies, which both generate large sets of sequence data that need to be properly assembled to generate the entire genome sequences. The assemblies do not always match up because of the differences in the sequencing and assembly processes. This project focused on comparing the alignments to identify the reconfigurations that need to be made such that the necessary sequence comparisons can be made. It involved mastery of multiple bioinformatic analysis programs, as well as learning the proper way to manage the DNA sequences such that they can be successfully analyzed. Completion of this work will, for the first time, generate "genetic clues" as to why strains of R. sphaeroides are sensitive to, yet also require ALA for growth. Having these clues will lead to possible "culprits" that can subsequently be proven either innocent or guilty using additional molecular techniques, involving testing each one.

Name:                         Baileigh Laipply
Major:                         Biology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Julia Halo

DNA sequences in the human genome that appeared to have no function were thought to have no purpose and even once referred to as ‘junk’ DNA. However, this DNA is now known to contain sequences that have many functions for the host species. These sequences include a group of elements termed ‘transposable elements’, so-named for their ability to mobilize within the genome and cause changes in the host DNA as a result. Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs) and Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs) are a form of transposable element, called retroelements or retrotransposons, that hijack the host cellular machinery to multiply throughout the host genome, done through a ‘copy and paste’ amplification of existing elements. SINE and LINE lineages have evolved together as pairs because SINEs are non autonomous and rely on LINE’s enzymatic machinery to mobilize. SINE elements have evolved from several types of cellular RNA, with tRNA derived SINEs being the most abundant, but least understood. These tRNA derived SINEs can be found in mice (referred to as B2) as well as canines (SINE_Cf). Both B2 and SINE_Cf are active in mouse and canine genomes, respectively, however the extend of their mobilization and the resulting genetic polymorphism is unknown. The secondary structure of SINEs and its mobilization in the genome has been shown to be necessary for other non-tRNA SINE elements. This project was aimed at studying the secondary structure of tRNA derived SINEs to understand if and how the structure influences its capability to mobilize. Here, retrotransposition assays as well as genotyping were performed to help determine the effects of the secondary structure and and the prevalence and genetic polymorphism of SINE insertions.

* CURs transcript.pdf
CURS TRANSCRIPT
* CURS poster.pptx
CURS POSTER

Name:                         Meghan Boomer
Major:                         Forensic Science with a specialization in Forensic Biology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Raymond Larsen

Gram negative bacteria have a unique cell wall architecture. This consists of a dual membrane system that includes a standard phospholipid bilayer as a cytoplasmic membrane (CM) and an asymmetric outer membrane (OM) with an external polar surface and a standard phospholipid inner layer, separated by a hydrophobic interior. There are several major energy-dependent processes that occur at the outer membrane that rely on the ion electrochemical potential of the CM. This study focuses on the Tol system, which maintains the barrier function of the OM. Based on previous studies conducted in the Larsen lab, it was concluded that the ability to maintain outer membrane integrity lies within the carboxy terminus of the TolA protein. The purpose of this study was to determine the region of the carboxy terminus domain of the TolA protein from E. coli that directly interacts with the OM to maintain integrity. The DNA sequences of E. gergoviae and E. coli TolA were compared for sequences for primers to bind to create a chimeric E. gergoviae TolA protein containing the E. coli TolA carboxy terminus using mutagenic PCR. The results of the mutagenic PCR showed that we were unsuccessful in creating this chimeric protein. While the expected results of the study were not observed, a strategy to choose primers needed to create the chimeric TolA protein was determined. This protocol can be utilized in future studies to determine how to actually create the chimeric TolA protein and continue studying how it affects OM integrity.

Name:                         David Roach
Major:                         Marine / Aquatic Biology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Jeffrey Miner

Research Question: How does heterogeneity in biomass and density of prey (zooplankton) affect resource use and foraging rate in larval Walleye (Sander vitreus)? I can submit additional ideas too, I'm not sure what was best to put for this box.

Name:                         Kate Lochridge
Major:                         Biology and Bachelor of Fine Arts
Addtl. Contributors:     Kaitlin Plate (Biology)
Mentors:                     Christopher Ward

Kelp is a large marine seaweed that, due to its rapid growth and nutrient uptake, is valued for food, biofuel and carbon sequestration applications. Kelp aquaculture is growing significantly in the United States, yet many basic questions still remain, such as what are the most productive kelp strains and what pests infest kelp. To address these concerns, we performed the first disease risk assessment of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in the US Pacific coast. As part of a larger project in collaboration with University of California-Santa Barbara and University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, in 2019 500 kelp varieties were outplanted off the coast of Santa Barbara, harvested, and measured for various productivity features. We analyzed high-resolution photographs of blades of each individual kelp plant to identify the primary epifaunal diseases. As the first study of its kind, we created a quantitative 0-3 scale to measure severity of the three pest diseases. We then used non-parametric statistical tests (e.g. Kruskal-Wallis, PERMANOVA) to identify relationships between kelp genotypes, productivity measures, and disease grades. The results indicated that two infection states had significant relationships with decreased productivity: hydroids alone (p=0.038), and the combination of bryozoa and amphipods (p=0.013). These findings underscore the potential risk associated with pests on giant kelp productivity in the US Pacific. Further study of kelp disease may enable selection of pest-resistant kelp genotypes and targeted pest control approaches for protecting kelp. In the future, the results of this research will be distributed to kelp aquaculturists to aid in identifying and preventing pest-induced crop reduction.

Name:                         Kristina Gara
Major:                         Microbiology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Raymond Larsen

The Tol system plays a key role in protecting gram-negative cells against environmental toxins. A central protein in this system is TolA, which plays a role in maintaining the cell’s barrier function. Previous studies have shown that colicins and filamentous phage target TolA to enter the cell. While the Larsen lab is not equipped to work with filamentous bacteriophage, we do extensive work with non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA bacteriophage. Using the lab’s current collection of phage, each sample was tested against various Tol system protein deletion strains (using Escherichia coli as a model system). From these assays three bacteriophage were discovered that seem to be dependent on the TolA protein for cell entry. I isolated and amplified one of these phages and collected DNA samples for further characterization. During this process it was discovered that the phage we thought to be TolA-dependent could actually infect TolA deletion strains, but the phage infections occur at such a low rate that their plaques are nearly impossible to see. Since plaque morphology and rate of infection changed, we can hypothesize that there is another method of cell entry the phage can use at the expense of its virulence. Currently the phage is being characterized through enzyme restriction digests before being sequenced. While the research done for this project is preliminary work, the hope is that this phage can be used to provide us with a better understanding of how bacteriophages interact with the Tol system and provide an avenue for phage therapy.

Name:                         Jacob Gillen
Major:                         Biology-Marine and Aquatic
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Chris Ward

REVISED ABSTRACT The use of algal biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuel-derived energy is a promising technology however, algal biofuel ponds are currently not sustainable enough to replace fossil fuels. The algal microbiome is the community of microbes that associate with algae and can make positive and/or negative contributions to algal biofuel ponds. A critical role of the algal microbiome is nutrient cycling. Some algal strains exude a large proportion of their fixed carbon (C) and may also release nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in organic forms. Heterotrophic microbes break down and recycle these nutrients into bioavailable forms without which, algae in biofuel ponds could not reach optimal yields. Most organic matter and nutrients are too large to be processed by heterotrophic bacteria therefore, bacteria release extracellular enzymes that breakdown these materials into smaller components that are more readily consumed. The purpose of my research is to assess the extracellular enzyme activity of various N-, P-, and C-acquiring enzymes found in algal cultures. I developed a fluorometric enzyme activity assay which is capable of tracking enzymatic activity across different stages of algal culture development. Currently, analysis of enzymatic activity in algal cultures is ongoing. The novel application of extracellular enzyme activity assays in mass algal cultures will provide vital insight into the important roles the algal microbiome plays in the development and sustainability of algal biofuel ponds. Keywords: Algal biofuel, microalgae, lipids, organic compound molecules, fossil fuels.

Chemistry

Name:                         Sarah Blake
Major:                         Forensic Chemistry & English
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Travis Worst

The concentration of THC, a molecule found in marijuana, determines the difference between medical marijuana and illicit drug use. However, it can be extremely difficult to quantify THC because of its strong adsorptive qualities. This project aimed to prevent THC adsorption to improve quantification accuracy in forensic laboratories.

Name:                         Kathryn Haver
Major:                         Chemistry
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Joseph Furgal

The goal of this project was to create a silicon-based photo-responsive molecular sponge that would extract the chemicals perfluoroctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from water and to see which silsesquioxane based porous network polymer absorbed the chemicals the best. To do this, a controlled porosity network polymer was pre-synthesized using a basic ethene bridge. This would then be followed by studies of azobenzene (a photo-responsive cross-linker) bridged network materials. The removal efficiency of PFOS and PFOA was then tested from controlled concentration solutions using ESI-MS.

Name:                         Clare Sunderman
Major:                         Chemistry
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Robert Midden

The goal of this research was to work towards a major improvement in the treatment of manure to reduce the adverse environmental impact in a sustainable way to fertilize crops by testing extraction methods for obtaining pectin from parsnips and alginate from macroalgae such as Macrocystis, that is effective to use for manure treatment. I then used that pectin and alginate, along with a coagulant, to solidify the liquid manure that was then used as a viable fertilizer. The hope in doing this was to reduce the cost spent on very refined pectin and alginate. Over this past semester, I experimented with multiple ways to extract these two polysaccharides to find out what method had the best product yield. I tested each method for the efficacy of converting the manure as a viable material to retain nutrients. And I also tested the extracted pectin and extracted alginate and compared them to highly purified and refined pectin and alginate, to determine their success in manure treatment.

Name:                         Ethan Gevedon
Major:                         American Chemical Society Certified Bachelors of Chemistry
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Pavel Anzenbacher

We present our recent research efforts aimed at synthesis of a supramolecular sensor for fluorescence-based detection of the biologically important pyrophosphate (PPi) anion in aqueous solution. The sensor operates based on intramolecular Indicator Displacement mechanism (IID). Other phosphate species such as dihydrogen phosphate (Pi), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) will have their sensing capability evaluated to determine the extent of selectivity of the sensor to PPi. The sensor will be utilized in real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) where selective detection of PPi will result in quantification of DNA during replication process. In PCR, the rates of DNA produced and PPi released are directly correlated. By measuring the amounts of the produced byproduct PPi, we will be able to quantify the amount of DNA replicated. Toward this end, we have worked on the synthesis of the sensor molecules comprising three different structural moieties. The first moiety is the metal-ligand complex (, the second is an aryl boronic acid (B(OH)2, and the third is a catechol based fluorescent dye. The synthesis of this sensor molecule is complex, and it has been a goal of this semester’s project to synthesize and purify key functional precursors of this molecule. Likewise, work is being performed to purify the key intermediate and other products of the reactions using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). This is an advanced and highly efficient technique used in analytical chemistry to identify the components of mixtures and in the organic synthesis to purify the prepared materials and molecules of interest. With these tools, we have made a significant progress in organic synthesis, product analysis, and purification of the sensor outlined above. In this presentation, we will report on our progress toward completion of this project.

Name:                         Hope Brown
Major:                         Biochemistry
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Alexis Ostrowski

This project uses metal ion coordination to bind vanadium ions to polymers. The polymers used are pectin and chitosan. The goal of this project is to make robust, environmentally friendly, and biodegradable plastic films. A ratio of one to one to four of pectin: chitosan: glycerol is used and then soaked in a vanadium/water solution for five minutes. The films were then sent through several mechanical analysis, including water solubility, pH studies, tensile strength, diffuse reflectance, scanning electron microscopy, and IR spectrometry.

Name:                         Denaja Haygood
Major:                         Biochemistry
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Sheila J Roberts, Lisa Hanasono

Black women are severely underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. While the underrepresentation of professional Black women in STEM has been well-researched, the pipeline problem of the education of Black women in STEM has been overlooked. The number of Black women pursuing STEM degrees dramatically decreases as the level of education increases. This gap in the literature is problematic, because Black women are still severely underrepresented in STEM-focused advanced degree programs. A small but growing literature indicates that Black women tend to experience frequent forms of discrimination, feelings of isolation and less satisfaction with their graduate programs, and devaluation from their peers and faculty. Recent events such as the COVID-19 pandemic and national social unrest are exacerbating and introducing new stressors and institutional barriers for Black women graduate students in STEM projects. The purpose of this exploratory interview study is to identify the challenges that Black women graduate students in STEM fields are facing in their program studies while navigating life and school through the COVID-19 pandemic and massive racial injustice and social unrest. Featuring a short online survey and in-depth interviews, this study aims to identify how universities and faculty can better support Black women graduate students. This research is still in progress so preliminary results will be provided.

Computer Science

Name:                         Adarsh Gupta
Major:                         Computer Science
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Venu Dasigi

Carlos Maria de Bustamante, who was a prominent Mexican journalist, author and politician, recorded major political events along with succinct weather observations of Mexico City from 1823 to 1848. The period has historical significance because it followed independence from Spain, but also because is not well known for its climatic trends. After several drought-induced famines in the late colonial period, there were no famines after independence, but not much is known if this correlated to milder climate trends or to improvements in the access to food. In order to find out more about the climate, we extract the daily weather summaries in Mexico through Bustamante’s diary. We are using Python and natural language processing for extracting information. Right now, we have extracted all the weather observations tokenized and stemmed from 1824 to 1848 in a .csv format for better access. The next step in the research is to prepare labels for the extracted weather observation so that they can be categorized for pattern analysis and cluster similarities. We also have access to meteorological weather data from an overlapping period (1824-1828) for the same geographic area. First, we would like to cross-reference the data from the diary against the meteorological data and note the degree of consistency. Since Bustamante also chronicled the events during the same period, it is hypothesized that an analysis would reveal correlations between weather perceptions and various events and political developments and help understand and explain any inconsistencies. This exercise tries to capitalize on the greater availability of digitized materials to explore the opportunities of textual analysis and possibilities to mine climate data more broadly. The predicted outcome might also advance the project’s disciplines (computer sciences and history) by enabling digital humanities research in a small way, since it will not only identify whether there is a correlation between political development and impact on weather, but if so, also in what ways.

History

Name:                         Benjamin Stuck
Major:                         AYA Integrated Social Studies Education
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Matt Schumann

Stemming from a class project I conducted in my Historiography class (in the Fall of 2019), my instructor encouraged me to continue my project outside of the classroom and extend my research through a CURS grant. Through this project, I spent the last Fall 2020 semester continuing my research and learning more about the War on Drugs and its impact on our local communities. With the help of my mentor, the scholarly question that I was presenting for this project was, ""To what extent do current racial attitudes in Toledo, OH, reflect the legacy of the War on Drugs?"". I specifically wanted to gain insight on how (or if) the War on Drugs was impacting the current racial attitudes that have been observed throughout the past year in Toledo, OH through the completion of my project. In addition to the personal research I was conducting, I interviewed a handful of selected volunteers to gain some personal insight and first person accounts of how the War on Drugs was (or was not) impacting the current racial attitudes present in Toledo. My interviewees were all residents of the Toledo area and provided me with valuable insight to aid me throughout the completion of this project. With my conducted research and gathered statements from my interviewers, I was able to address my created scholarly question after the conclusion of the Fall semester and CURS project. I concluded that further research would need to be conducted in order to determine the full extent that the current racial attitudes in Toledo, OH, reflect the legacy of the War on Drugs. However, I would comfortably state that the legacy of the War on Drugs has had a somewhat negative contribution to the current racial attitudes present in Toledo based upon the research and responses collected from my interviewers. Further research would need to be conducted to determine the extent of this contribution in greater detail.

Name:                         Chloe Kozal
Major:                         History and Studio Arts
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Matt Schumann

My Historiography class this semester inspired this presentation under the instruction of my mentor, Dr. Schumann. This semester, I researched the Argentine Dirty War (1976-83) in two ways- from a diplomatic and an art historic standpoint. I studied the creation of mail art as a means of political resistance and civilian communication during the Dirty War. This presentation analyzes the role of mail art by Argentine mail artists Edgardo Antonio Vigo and Graciela Gutiérrez Marx in subverting Argentine fascism and nationalism. “La Guerra Sucia”, or The Argentine Dirty War occurred during 1976-1983, a period where the right-wing military junta ruled and committed many human rights violations against political enemies and civilians. Violations included disappearing their victims, the creation of concentration camps and the torturing, drugging, and throwing of the victims’ bodies into the Atlantic, which led to the official deaths of 10,000 to 15,000 victims. While the U.S. and the junta coordinated together, American and Argentine artists maintained fluid communications that empowered the resistance to the military dictatorship. An excerpt of my research, this presentation focuses primarily on the relationship between the U.S. Executive Branch and Department of State with the military junta. This presentation also investigates the effective use of an artistamp by Argentine mail artists to spread the word about the disappeared. Research involved primary archival research and coordination with Oberlin College’s Mail Art collection archivists, as well as the study of diplomatic communication through research of Foreign Relations of the United States documents. 

Math and Statistics

Name:                         Seyoung Ree
Major:                         N/A
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Craig Zirbel

Animals have two ribosomes, cytosolic and mitochondrial, and they are under different types of evolutionary pressure. Mitochondria are the site of cellular respiration, so mitochondrial ribosomes, like other components of the matrix, are more exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS), the by-products of cellular respiration. In previous work, we have provided evidence that mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs have evolved to protect themselves by reducing the number of guanine nucleotides, which are more easily oxidized than the other nucleotides. Mitochondrial ribosomes also acquired more and longer proteins since their divergence from bacterial origins, so that almost all of the surface of the RNA is protected by solvent from proteins. Another mechanism through which mitochondrial ribosomes may have evolved to protect themselves from ROS is by populating their ribosomal proteins with amino acids that carry electrons from glutathione in the solvent to the RNA. These amino acids include CYS, TRP, TYR, and MET. We analyzed the CYS, TRP, TYR, and MET composition of mitochondrial and cytosolic ribosomal protein sequences of different groups of animals, plants, and bacteria. We find that the mitochondrial ribosomes have a higher percentage overall of CYS, TRP, TYR, and MET amino acids than the cytosolic ribosomes, which provides evidence that mitochondrial ribosomes have undergone an adaptation to protect themselves from ROS.

Physics and Astronomy

Name:                         Logan Pirnstill
Major:                         Physics and Applied Mathematics
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Marco Nardone

The underlying mechanisms of hysteresis phenomena exhibited by perovskite photovoltaic devices are explored using a comprehensive numerical modeling approach. Simulations are based on fully coupled drift-diffusion equations for electronic and ionic charges. The effects of and interplay among mobile ions, interface defects, contact layer doping, and bulk perovskite properties are studied by comparison to current-voltage, capacitance, and luminescence data from the literature. Experimental conditions such as voltage scan rate, holding time, and light intensity are also important considerations. A better understanding of hysteresis mechanisms can improve perovskite device performance assessment and long-term stability.

Political Science

Name:                         Alyissa Horn
Major:                         Philosophy, Politics, Economics and Law
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Abhishek Bhati

Largely overlooked when it comes to nonprofit organizations and their influence in society are the practices and influences of wealthy donors. Throughout history, wealthy individuals have been able to find immense amounts of influence through the donation of their wealth to the nonprofit sector. As individuals, we struggle to be critical of a sector that creates such an immense amount of good. However, this article pushes readers to ask: “What are the true motivations of wealthy donors?” Through a critical analysis of the philanthropic practices of Andrew Carnegie, who is often credited with the start of modern-day big philanthropic giving, this research indicates that the motives of wealthy individuals are not altruistic, and in fact, their donation of funds and the influence it creates have negative consequences on the beneficiaries of nonprofit organizations. A look at modern-day philanthropists such as Bill Gates and Jeff Bezos indicates that the practices, influences, and negative aspects of Carnegie’s philanthropic giving have transcended time, working their way into modern-day giving practices. Using analyses into the motives of wealthy individuals from Carnegie to Gates, my research helps to uncover the fact that the practice of big philanthropy is far from altruistic, and I encourage readers to look past the surface level good that philanthropic donors create in an effort to create a more transparent nonprofit sector.

Name:                         Alyssa Tomins
Major:                         Economics and Political Science
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Shannon Orr

The 2020 General Election was the first election where Generation Z and Millennials made up a significant portion of all eligible voters compared to the older voting blocs. Younger generations are expected to continue to make up larger shares of the electorate and will eventually outgrow the voting blocs of groups that traditionally turn out at high rates in elections. Young people are known to vote at low rates, yet their voices are becoming increasingly significant as their share of the electorate grows. Therefore, it is imperative that we learn more about how to recruit members of these younger generations to participate in future elections. Colleges and universities are in a unique position to encourage their students to vote and to change the narrative that young people are unconcerned with our elections. This study seeks to understand the best practices for voter engagement programming within higher education, and was conducted in collaboration with The Andrew Goodman Foundation. A qualitative survey was developed and sent to 84 academic institutions across the country to asses their voter engagement practices. This study was successful in understanding different types of innovative programming for voter registration, education, and get out the vote efforts, as well as social media practices and diverse team recruitment. Ultimately, these practices need to be student-centered and focused on meeting students where they are at in their academic and civic journeys.

Name:                         Michael Johnston
Major:                         Computer Science
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Joshua Boston

This research studies COVID mask mandates as a device for understanding how the mass public complies with rules as a function of legitimacy. When individuals feel morally obliged to acquiesce to police, courts, or other institutions grounded in procedural fairness, society maintains some mutual restraint—that is, a rule of law. During the COVID pandemic, many Americans have questioned the legitimacy of government restrictions. In conducting a survey experiment, I exploit different governmental sources for COVID-related rules that respondents would be required to follow. I expect that differences in rule compliance are driven by (1) impressions of community credibility and (2) the perceived proximity between a citizen and institutional actors. To empirically test these hypotheses, I employ an experimental survey design with eight vignettes. Each treatment condition – applied at random to survey participants – manipulates principal and agent relationships, normative perspective on compliance, and fairness regarding the principal and agent relationship decision. I discovered that respondents’ likelihood of adherence to the mask mandate was affected by the mandating institution. Respondents were more likely to adhere to a mandate from the university as opposed to the state. A major implication of this research is that as we begin to understand the dynamics of rule compliance at an inter-institutional level, institutions with a more effective principal/agent distance can partner with other institutions to increase overall rule compliance among the greater population.

Psychology

Name:                         Sam Beery
Major:                         Psychology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Eric Dubow

The United States has been deeply affected by Covid-19. As of March 7th, more than 29 million Americans have been infected with the virus and more than 520,000 have died. These deaths account for approximately 21% of the world’s Covid-19 deaths, even though the US population accounts for only 4.23% of the global population. This disproportionate rate of infection in the US is further exacerbated in its interaction with another comparatively inflated population of American society – incarcerated individuals. With an incarceration rate greater than any other country, infrastructure conducive to spreading the disease, and highly vulnerable populations within; the US prison system is a giant petri dish for Covid-19. In addition to the negative physical effects of Covid-19 exposure, the threat of infection itself can promote psychological distress as well. While the effect of Covid-19 on the mental health of general populations has been studied, there has been little research into the effect the pandemic has had on the mental wellbeing of prisoners. The aim of this research is to ascertain the levels of stress and depression due to the pandemic experienced by prisoners, and the religious and general coping strategies utilized in response. These variables will be measured through a 91-item survey on Qualtrics distributed to returned citizens who were in prison during the pandemic.

* CURS presentation_Sam Beery.pdf
CURS presentation_Sam Beery.pdf

Name:                         Jerrin George
Major:                         Psychology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Jason Rose

Personal motivations are important to determine whether a human will perform a certain task or not. People are often motivated to use comparisons to form evaluations, regulate emotions, make decisions, and guide behavior (Klein, 1997; Wheeler & Miyake, 1992; Wills, 1981; Zell & Alicke, 2009, 2010). For example, one individual who views a fitspiration post might have an increase in motivation to workout, while on the other hand, the fitspiration post may have detrimental effects on the individual due to the post increasing negative emotions, thoughts, lower self-esteem, and negative thoughts about their self-image. Overall, posts that are meant to positively benefit and motivate an individual to workout could instead have adverse effects and lead to reduced motivation to exercise. While previous research has explored the potential impact of social comparison with fitspiration posts and the overall motivation to workout, this study will build off of this and measure how a variety of emotions and mood might be affected. The study also will be measuring how much certain fitspiration posts may have affected an individual due to individual personality differences, their self-image or self-view, the Covid-19 pandemic, and other factors that could be a factor into how certain posts might lead to increased or decreased motivation. Given that fitspiration posts had a general negative correlation between the number of fitspiration posts seen and the motivation to workout (Arya & Rai, 2017;Norton, 2017), it is necessary to better examine what impact race, social comparisons, perspective-taking, and other individual differences have on how people engage in inspirational comparisons and the way they feel about themselves. Participants will first complete a writing task in which they will rank values that are least important to them and most important to them. Participants will view fitspiration images, evaluate the pictures and its quality, and will evaluate their current emotions, moods, and thoughts after viewing the fitspiration images. They will then answer questions regarding their current mood state. Participants will also rate fitspiration posts and discuss about the clarity. Participants will complete a variety provide self- evaluations and behavioral intentions related to this task following the presentation of bogus performance feedback. Participants will also complete personality-based measures related to comparison tendencies, handedness and demographics. Participants will be recruited through SONA systems and MTurk and complete the study online. Participants will engage in the same procedure described above except all data will be recorded and collected via Qualtrics, not PEBL. Upon completion, UT student participants will be granted credit and the MTurk data will be assessed to determine validity (described previously) prior to distributing payment. Participation in this study is not gender-exclusive. Participants will have the ability to look at the study offered on MTurk, and choose to participate if they would like. All participants recruited will be 18 years of age or older. The study is currently in the process of data collection. The hypothesis for this study is that social media posts such as fitspiration posts will have a negative effect on the viewer's motivation and inspiration. It is hypothesized that fitspiration posts will have an overall negative impact on the emotions of the viewer of the social media content.

Name:                         Mason Trinh
Major:                         Psychology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Eric Dubow

Literature points out that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have long-lasting, negative effects on opportunity, health, and psychological well-being (CDC, 2020). ACEs are potentially traumatic events that occur in childhood (0-17 years) (CDC, 2020). My project is part of a needs assessment conducted by Professor Eric Dubow for Harbor, a behavioral health and substance abuse provider in Toledo, OH. Harbor is interested in the needs of families in two zip codes, 43605 and 43607, of Lucas County, OH, where it provides services. Residents in these zip codes are exposed to stressful conditions; United States Zip Codes (2021) describes these zip codes as significantly racially-segregated neighborhoods concentrated by low-income populations, with high unemployment rate, with extremely small percentage of families, and with a high number of single parent families. For this study, we particularly focused on how ACEs occurring before and those occurring because of the COVID-19 pandemic correlated with child behavioral problems among children in these zip codes. Our hypothesis was that families experiencing a higher number of ACES would report a higher number of child behavioral problems. Due to many impediments of the COVID-19 pandemic to our research protocols, we were only able to survey 40 parents of two zip codes, 43605 and 43607, of Lucas County, OH. As a result, we consider our data to be preliminary data. Analyses suggest that the strong positive correlation between the number of ACEs because of COVID-19 and child behavioral problems, which implies that the higher number of adverse conditions induced by COVID-19 might have a major impact on the child. We speculate that these ACES experienced during the pandemic probably affected the child through the parent’s ability to manage child-rearing issues during this difficult time. Since our data are considered only preliminary, future research should attempt to replicate the study with a much larger sample size and perhaps other zip codes that characterize likely adverse childhood experiences (ACEs).

Name:                         Josh Begg
Major:                         Psychology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Carolyn Tompsett

Preventing recidivism is a central focus of juvenile courts. Assessment Centers (AC) were created for this very purpose. One key component of ACs are to evaluate the mental health of youth involved in the court system and help connect them to needed resources. Up to 70% of court-involved youth meet the criteria for a mental health disorder. The Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) assessment is one measure of youth mental health needs. The present study sought to determine if there was an association between several subscales of the CANS and offense type as well as recidivism. The CANS assessment was given to 149 youth (62% male; 67% Black) who were arrested and/or referred by a jurist to the AC. Chi-square analyses were conducted to determine if there were significant differences in distribution between type of originating offense and the CANS subscales of: depression, anxiety, hyperactivity, judgement, oppositional behavior, and peer influences on substance use. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether certain subscales were more related to different type of offense committed. No significant results were found in these analyses. Chi-square analysis showed that among the CANS subscales, only oppositional behavior was associated with recidivism status (c2(1) = 11.03, p < .01). When all subscales were fit in a logistic regression model, oppositional behavior remained associated with recidivism (OR = 3.04, 95% CI = 1.23, 7.54, p < .05) such that those who scored at risk for oppositional behavior had higher rates of recidivism. Differences in recidivism status by race and sex did not emerge.

Name:                         Adreanna Klepec
Major:                         Psychology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Dara Musher-Eizenman

This study aims to investigate the similarities between parent/caregivers (P/C) and their emerging adult-aged child’s fruit and vegetable intake (FV). Specifically, we will explore the concurrence between parents and their college-age children in this dietary behavior as well as whether the child’s primary residence influences this relationship. The child’s residence status is defined as either living with their parent(s)/caregiver(s) or independently (on or off campus). In addition, we will examine the relationship between various parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) and concordance in FV intake. This study will also consider additional factors, such as the child’s perceptions of P/C’s parenting style and food intake, P/C and child food neophobia, current and/or previous weight classification, and nutritional knowledge as possible covariates. Diagnosed eating disorders will be an exclusion criterion for participation in the study to assure that the sample is non-clinical in eating behaviors. To investigate these research questions data was collected from 12 parents and 12 children dyads throught individual Qualtrics surveys. A 2x3 ANOVA, the child’s residence (living with or without P/C), and the child’s perception of their P/C’s parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, or indulgent). Theses variables were measures against the child’s fruit and vegetable intake. The results indicated nonsignificant effects. Specifically, the child’s residence did not impact the number of fruits and vegetables they ate; likewise, their perception of the P/C’s parenting style did not affect their fruit and vegetable intake. Lastly, there was not a significant interaction between residence and perceived parenting style.

School of Art

Name:                         Etta Gallaway
Major:                         Studio Art
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Mille Guldbeck

Atmosphere in painting can create an unspoken narrative and an overwhelming mood, drawing a viewer’s attention and focus into the piece. My research revolves around understanding how an intense atmosphere can be created through aesthetic elements such as color, light, and texture, using the medium of oil paint. I reference images I have taken that possess strong sources of light as well as figures. Texture was created through my painterly brushwork using a variety of brush sizes, as well as application of paint by a palette knife and rags. I investigated color by utilizing new oil paint pigments which I purchased through the funding for this project. The research consisted of creating three 48x60” paintings. The size of the canvases are large in order to create a sense of presence and engulf the viewer in the atmosphere they project. Through the work I created during this project, I started to discover an interest in interiors, composition and shape. I started to investigate areas of emptiness, where there is the idea of a form, but it is not rendered. I became more aware of how light can create luscious, sensuous color and how to create luminous rooms by pulling focus towards the light source. Additionally, I realized composition and shape are two elements of my paintings that I want to focus and perfect in future works.

Name:                         Jessie Walton
Major:                         Graphic Design
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Jenn Stucker

The ‘Revelation Booth,’ turns the majority of thinking into the minority, putting the viewers into a headspace to consider their own privilege and be thankful for it and consider what they can do with it to help others. Native American communities are still alive and relevant today, and are not just simple text in history books or objects and customs for appropriation. The ‘Revolution Booth’ serves as an epitome to bring an understanding to the viewers outside the Indigenous community to understand their own privilege, to see the hardships, confusion and solemnness through the installation. The booth helps emulate a sense of self-awareness, to call for a change in the viewer’s perspective, and to motivate them to alter their own thinking of privilege. The typography displays a Cherokee and English fusion along with English-written statements that elevates the coercion of a personal connection of my own heritage, on how I never learned the language of my ancestors and felt the pressure of the outside community to change to modernity and colonization. The viewers of the installation are able to take a coin home with them that provides a QR code that gives more information on how to become a Native ally, a 360 view of the installation itself, and donate towards community, education, water and more.

Name:                         William Maier
Major:                         Digital Arts
Addtl. Contributors:     Alexa Mahajan (Digital Arts), Kayla Brewer (Digital Arts), Kira Nichelle Whitelow (Digital Arts)
Mentors:                     Bonnie Mitchell

The development of the International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) and Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH) Archives is an ongoing research and development project involving numerous students spanning over several years. A new archive for the history of the ACM SIGGRAPH conferences is now also underway, to be presented at the conference’s 50th anniversary in 2023. These archives constitute the world’s largest project of their kind in the documentation of the history and media of art. This project seeks to further these efforts in continuing to incorporate years of data about art and technology, developing new code as well as optimizing existing programs for highest efficiency in the creation of the websites, and adding additional functionality for user interaction and experience. Such archival efforts will continue this upcoming fall semester. Students involved are continually learning and developing new methods for visualizing data in means that are not only clearly communicative but also timeless in capturing the essence of the years of conferences they are aiming to preserve. Believing that an archive can only be as great as the quality of information used to create it, students place high value on attention to detail and continually analyze their work in order to ensure the data being used is accurately reflected. This project provides the students involved with a great opportunity to learn about the history of digital art and technological innovations around the world, develop an international community of students with similar goals and interests to collaborate with, hone skills of organization for mass quantities of information, and envision new methods of data visualization and preservation through digital art and computer programming.

Name:                         Emily Potter
Major:                         Fine Art, Glass
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Joel O'Dorisio

For this project I would like to explore the relationship of conventional color theory in the medium of glass. I would like to challenge the components of traditional color composition by translating color into visual sculptures that resemble fabric, a familiar material to every human. Fabric has a distinct flexibility noticeable to the eye when draped. Recreating the iconic folds in fabric will create a format to judge color theory in terms of surface characteristics. One component of this experiment that relies heavily on the use of glass as the material is transparency in contrast to opacity. Glass is one of the few artistic materials that can be both transparent and opaque. My goal is to display the ambiguity of color theory designed around the quintessential opacity of color. I expect that the visual infiltration of light through color will affect traditional color theory based around opacity. By forming glass models that parallel the complex shadow structure of fabric I will expose the variation between the accepted themes of color theory with the deviation of transparency.

* Color Transparency Presentation_Emily Potter.pdf
Color Transparency Presentation_Emily Potter POSTER
* Presentation Written transcript_Emily Potter.pdf
Presentation Written transcript_Emily Potter TRANSCRIPT

Name:                         Kaitlyn DiBiase
Major:                         Graphic Design
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Lori Young

Graphic design can often be used to bring attention to pressing social issues and start meaningful conversations that facilitate change. Sugar Coated is an interactive experience designed for the audience to visually connect common, packaged foods with their sugary equivalents in reference to their high added sugar contents. Viewing foods in this deglamorized, ironic manner – through the lens of a vending machine – better establishes the correlation between the products and their poor nutritional values. Low fat yogurt, fruit juice, soup, and pasta sauce are just a few of the many packaged products that are misleadingly high in added sugars and often advertised as being “healthy” choices. Companies successfully target consumers with deceptive packaging and marketing tactics, along with consumers being unaware of alternative names for sugar on nutrition labels. This leads to an overconsumption of sugar causing serious, long-term health effects, such as Type 2 diabetes and heart disease, which unintentionally stem from sugar-rich foods in our everyday diets. With the number of people diagnosed with diet-related health conditions on the rise – primarily among young children – this prevalent topic is not being discussed enough. Creating awareness around this ongoing issue is important in helping people understand exactly what goes into their food and how to regain control of their purchasing habits and consumer knowledge.

Name:                         Melody Butturff
Major:                         BFA Studio
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Tom Muir

The Earth cannot survive without the help of bees and their pollinating skills. Bees are a vital being and are basically the heart of our way of life. I want to show and bring awareness to the importance of these little creatures and what they do. I have made previous works relating to this subject and I have been trying to think of different ways to catch the eyes of viewers. I have made a brooch and a ring so far and now I want to make a set of hair sticks. Hair accessories are a unique piece of jewelry which seem to start conversations. I am going to create these with techniques and materials I am unfamiliar with. My plan is to create the stick portion of the hair ornament with silver speculums. Speculums are tapered tubes created my forming a flat sheet of metal in a way to make a sturdy seamless form. I want to repousse the petals of the crocus flower which is one of the plants which attract the bees. Repousse is a form of moving metal to create design and depth in the piece. To really show the value these critters have, I want to use gold as a highlight to the shiny silver hair ornaments. I have done research on why bees are important and what attracts them, but this project will help me learn and research my craft in a way I have never done before.

Name:                         Megan Diamond
Major:                         BFA Studio Art
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Tom Muir

Throughout the past two years, I have been creating a series of clothing items using the recycled materials from old stuffed animals. Through this grant, I was able to create two new additions to my series. The first piece is a pair of pants titled ""Foundation"" and the second is a skirt titled ""Dependence"". Initially, I intended to simply give these objects a new purpose. I saw them as emotionless objects with no meaning. Although, as I began disassembling, I gradually began to see the small details that showed the deep love they had received in their previous homes: names written on tags, patched holes, frayed seams, and muddied white fur from overuse. I’ve come to realize that these aren’t objects that I can cut up with no thought, they were someone’s memories. Comfort items aid us through different fears and phases. The fact that these stuffed animals were discarded, shows that they had fulfilled their purpose. As we grow and transition through life, these items that once meant so much to us, slowly fade out of our lives. Yet, their influence still remains with us as a protective armor. With this grant, I was able to further research the effect our past comfort objects have on our adult lives.

Name:                         Isabel Wolke
Major:                         Studio Arts
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Mille Guldbeck

Through the course of the past year, students at Bowling Green State University have been experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic. This research investigated the idea of masks and how each person has their own individual struggles that are ongoing during this pandemic. The Center of Disease Control requires all Americans to wear their masks, but this project explored the idea of a figurative mask that the students are wearing as they go through this difficult time. The notion of normalcy has been discarded this year as students are losing their college experiences and time with friends. Students are trying to put on ‘happy faces’ when instead, most of them are falling behind in classes and are struggling to keep a positive mindset. The goal of the project was to portray these emotions and realities of the students and create a series of four paintings that would allow these students an outlet to express themselves in their 'masks'.

Name:                         Starra Halter
Major:                         Studio Arts
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Ross Mazzupappa

The BFA Thesis Exhibition is the closing presentation of an undergraduate artist’s academic career set to demonstrate the development of their artistic proficiencies, conceptualities, and experiences over the course of their higher education. The development of my photography research project emerged throughout many earlier semesters as I began creating portraits of those close to me. As my time with this theme progressed, I advanced further both conceptually and technically, ultimately discovering that by concentrating on the qualities of the skin and form, I could still depict my subjects in a way that remains true to itself. The exactness of the camera allows me to precisely and truthfully render the qualities of skin that go unnoticed such as the shape, form, color, texture, and tone. Although the human body is not perfected, it is truthful to itself. With controlled lighting and a close focus, I am holding in place a moment of someone’s presence. In understanding this, I hope to communicate ideas not confined by language to my viewers. Creating, editing, printing, matting, and framing are all means involved in this original and expressive project that involved liberal amounts of time, research, and persistence to produce. My hope in having my work and studies viewed is to be a source of entry to which the viewer may find a deeper meaning of not only my subject, but themselves.

Name:                         Meadow Kaye
Major:                         Studio Arts
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Ross Mazzuapappa

The gallery is where you can communicate and show your work to a large audience, so how you present said work is quite important. There are many different options for photographers and other two-dimensional artists to display their work within the gallery. There is the traditional framing with glass and frames, frames with no glass, and mounting the image backing board to name a few. How can methods of displaying change the way artwork receives attention without inhibiting the relationship between the viewer and piece? Glass may be a barrier to the viewers, or it protects and seals the intimate moment captured. A wooden frame surrounding open photographs may make the work feel claustrophobic or it may give the work the importance it deserves within the gallery. However, frames can become very expensive and inaccessible with glass, molding, mating, and mounting adding up quickly. Artists often find themselves unable to display their work in the ways they envision because of pricing alone. I had explored this topic and the viewership of each style of exhibiting with my Bachelor of Fine Arts thesis within the School of Art's Undergraduate thesis exhibition this spring. Using mockups and physical samples of my photographs in different displays, while taking note of responses and how the artwork changed with each alternative, the work was installed mounted onto foam boards and without any boarders at all. Seemingly allowing viewers total immersion in the pieces while saving hundreds of dollars.

Name:                         Jacob Church
Major:                         BFA studio
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Ross Mazzupappa

This project regards the role of presentation of a photographic sequence within the setting of an Art gallery. A horizontal row of images stretching across a gallery’s wall was at one time the only acceptable approach for presenting fine art photography. Today this convention seems anachronistic and circumspect. Through this project, I explore alternative methods of gallery presentation, such as showing individual works in a formation more reminiscent of a wave, featuring no singular central axis, as apposed to a centered horizontal line. I anticipate this mode of presentation to be much more congruent with a body of work that embraces multiple sizes of prints as well as both color and black & white photographs, more so than the conventional horizontal row of images. This installation based approach serves as an extension of the series aesthetic, consistent with the formal ideas behind the work. Details like size and arrangement were crucial as the installation began to take form. Acts like arranging and rearranging photographs in different formations ultimately resulted in the the body’s visual effect. Engaging in the physical act of moving prints in relation to one another and rearranging them repeatedly until a desired formation was reached, although largely subjective and intuitive in nature was enhanced by the insight and input of my faculty. Working through this photographic project as both a sequence of individual works and also as a gallery based installation allowed the aesthetic and narrative forms of the work to build off of and converse with each other.

Name:                         Shelby Frysinger
Major:                         Graphic Design
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Lori Young

‘Destigmatizing Schizophrenia’, analyzes and makes seen the critical issues and stigmas brought on by the U.S’s societal views of the illness schizophrenia. This web experience and installation refocus those issues and stigmas into an empathizing experience for those who believe the illness to be taboo. The website mixes data and interactive elements in order to manufacture an all-encompassing platform that allows the viewer to grasp the effects that schizophrenia has on those diagnosed.

Name:                         Erin Drake
Major:                         BFA
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Andrew Gilliat

Advances by artists have allowed for the creation of hand drawn and personalized decals to be created. A drawing or Photoshop file can be designed and printed from a regular laser printer onto water slide decal paper and transferred onto the glazed surface to be fired again to create a finished piece. After reading Digital Decals for the Ceramic Artist by Michaelann Tostanoski, about the process of creating, printing, and applying decals, I have developed more of an understanding about the process that goes into firing decals onto surfaces and the possibilities that I could work towards using decals. I want to further explore the uses and relationship between technology, the decal printer, and something that has been handmade, a ceramic surface. To further expand upon this, I want to test colored decals over colored surfaces. I will create clay tiles with different colored slips on each of the surfaces, put a clear glaze on them, then layer-colored decals, brown, black, green, blue, and red, over top of each one. After firing the decals on the clear glaze, I can compare the outcomes of the same decal color over top of many different slips. After completing these tiles, I will further expand this research and put it into practice on cups, bowls, and plates as well as combining many different colored slips onto one form under one colored decal to create the color desired. 

School of Cultural and Critical Studies

Name:                         Kasandra Fager
Major:                         History
Addtl. Contributors:     Dr. Amilcar Challu (History)
Mentors:                     Andrew Schocket

The George Mason Memorial memorial, built on the National Mall in 2002, captures the accomplishments of George Mason, a Founding Father, author of the Virginia Declaration of Rights, and he refused to sign the U.S. Constitution. Identifying Mason's history and exploring the motivations and struggles of the creation of the memorial opens a conversation for public opinion regarding the memorial's physical manifestation. The height of the Jefferson Memorial, the height of the George Washington obelisk, and the beauty of the Lincoln Memorial is seen as a testament of their god-like status in American history. So, where does this leave Mason’s memorial? Is he a lowly and personable figure like the rest of us, or a figure intentionally left out of the spotlight? This project attempts to answer this question by connecting theories of memorialization and primary documents from the Gunston Hall library, Mason's home. The theories include Seth C. Bruggeman's construction of nationalism and individual interest, David Gobel and Dave Rossell's theory of a rich past and a reflective present, and Nathan Glazer and Cynthia R. Field's organic demonstration and manufactured aesthetic. The three theories, the published newspaper and journal articles of the memorial's opening date, and the reports and personal notes taken by First Regent of Gunston Hall, and Senator Charles Robb are connected in their attempt to find an answer. The narrow focus of the project is used to understand how American's utilize public space and select historical figures to memorialize.

Name:                         Cali Vaughn
Major:                         History and Sociology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Jessica Birch

This study examines the relationship between the contemporary Natural Hair Movement and the politics of Black women’s hair. “Political” here means relating to the perception, use, and resistance to power; more explicitly, for the purpose of this study, political is defined as having to do with racial identity and the power of race in American society. The study addresses the following research questions: 1. What motivates Black women to wear their natural hair, despite mainstream society’s negative perceptions of and discrimination against natural Black hair? 2. How does the contemporary Natural Hair Movement double as a political protest? 3. What political statement(s) is the movement making through this protest? To answer the research questions, five different online communities (two blogs, two forums, and Twitter) were examined in a netnographic qualitative study. Data from these communities was coded into categories 1-5 that are based on the Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity (MMRI). Data collection is complete and undergoing analysis; results are pending. In addition, a survey was conducted using the Likert scale to confirm the netnographic findings. Follow up interviews were then conducted after survey collection was complete. Hypotheses are: 1. Black women who participate in the Natural Hair Movement will see their hair as a political statement. 2. Natural hair within the Natural Hair Movement will serve as a statement of Black liberation.

School of Earth, Environment, and Society

Name:                         Amanda Pobega
Major:                         Geography
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Yu Zhou

Atlantic County is geographically located on the east coast of the United States in New Jersey. Atlantic City is the one of the largest municipalities in the county. Atlantic County’s and the state of New Jersey’s largest source of revenue is tourism. The county’s main industries are tourism, aviation, and food/agriculture. Entertainment is huge with private sector employers such as providing casinos and hotels to tourists. Beaches, restaurants, shops, spas, golf, and many other opportunities are located there for entertainment. Around 27 million people visit this area every year and that brings in about 6.5 billion dollars. The state of New Jersey had a population of 8,882,190 in 2019. The estimated population of Atlantic County in 2019 was 263,670 people. Atlantic City had an estimated population of 37,743 people. There are many races residing in the county and the diversity is larger within Atlantic City. Based on U.S. Census data from 2010-2015, the Atlantic County population consisted of 67% White, 16% Black, 18% Hispanic (of all races), 8% Asian, and 6% Other. Concentrations of minorities are located on the coast. Dissimilarity indices can be used to see how much segregation occurs in an area. The median household income for 2019 in Atlantic County was $62,110 and Atlantic City median household income was $29,232. 2016 average household incomes vary throughout the county, but many incomes of less than $15,000 and between $15,000-$50,000 are located along the coastline. The concentrations of lower incomes and minorities is located on and near the coast. The impact of the distribution affects economics, crime, housing conditions, and other factors. Minority groups do not have lots of money to fix their houses, participate in entertainment the city provides, and can lead to illegal activities to make more money. Other impacts could be related to climate change. These minority groups with minimum incomes are living on the coast, but do not have money to prepare for rising sea levels. The government might focus their concerns about climate change towards the tourism area to keep people visiting the county/city. This is a case of environmental injustice.

* Mapping Inequality in Atlantic County, New Je_Amanda Pobega.pdf
Mapping Inequality in Atlantic County, New Je_Amanda Pobega.pdf

Name:                         James Bird
Major:                         Geology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Margaret Yacobucci

State symbols have been a part of this nation since its infancy but the first state fossils were not adopted until 1976. In what ways can fossils be given more focus as a state symbol? State fossils could serve as useful tools for geoscience education and preserving fossil resources. Unfortunately, state fossils often currently serve only as symbols for ""bragging rights"" to highlight state independence, and some state fossils are not the best choices to represent the state. I first reviewed the process by which state legislatures have selected state fossils and the backstories behind certain state fossils, including the reasons they were chosen and efforts to undermine the process by injecting pseudoscience or creationism into the legislation. I then conducted several interviews with experienced geoscience educators in Ohio, New York, Virginia, and California to learn more about how they have used state fossils for educating children and the general public. The interviews showed a consensus that state fossils have the potential to enhance K-12 geoscience education and public awareness of fossil resources and the need to protect them, however, such efforts require time and financial backing. Based on this evidence, state fossils should be implemented into school curricula to make a push towards more geoscience education and get children more interested in this field of research. Finally, I synthesized what I learned into a set of criteria for the selection of effective state fossils, including that the fossil species be unique, original, inspirational, and accurately represent the geologic history of the state

Name:                         Carlos Martinez
Major:                         Geology: Paleobiology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Margaret Yacobucci

Tempo and mode within macroevolution have been of great interest to paleontologists for decades. Punctuated equilibrium argues that species tend to remain in morphological stasis through most of their stratigraphic ranges, though causal mechanisms for stasis vs. evolutionary change remain unclear. How does the magnitude and nature of environmental variation relate to the relative frequency of stasis vs. directional change within species? Marine Pennsylvanian gastropods of the Appalachian Basin are a good case study to explore tempo and mode due to their abundance and occurrence within a constantly changing environment. The Pennsylvanian Appalachian Basin has a rich fossil record through an interval of pronounced transgression and regression cycles. Geometric morphometric analysis of marine gastropods’ shell variation was used to evaluate morphological changes in species across sea level cycles in order to test for stasis versus environmentally driven trends through the Middle Pennsylvanian. Four species of Pennsylvanian marine gastropods were examined across three consecutive sea level cycles. A total of 250 specimens were photographed and landmarks capturing shell shape were defined and digitized. After Procrustes superimposition, morphospaces were defined with principal component analyses in MorphoJ. Their resulting morphospaces were compared within and between species and between stratigraphic levels. Stasis was observed for each of the species. Two of the species show a pronounced reduction in morphological variation in the youngest sample, which represents an interval of relative stability in sea level. Lack of morphological change across several transgression-regression cycles indicates that environmental variations were not significant causal drivers of anatomical change in these gastropod species.

School of Media and Communication

Name:                         Brittany Line
Major:                         Media Production
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Jasmine Crighton

When lockdowns began in March 2020 due to coronavirus, concert venues were one of the first businesses to close down and have since become some of the last to reopen. This research looks at how COVID-19 has affected the concert industry and what adaptations venues are adopting to create a safe way to reopen live events. Information was gathered by analyzing how concert venues across the world were making changes, as well as looking at local establishments and live events. Additional information was also gathered from interviews of live event performers and venue coordinators. It was found that changes venues were making include abiding by guidelines of mask wearing, social distancing, and temperature checks for attendees. Outdoor venues have more options to return to events in a safe manner. Indoor venues invested in technology to help with air filtration and disinfecting. Technology is also being tested for attendees to be able to provide proof of vaccination before attending an event. In the United States, venues are beginning to reopen and are looking at large scale return this summer. Venues will begin to operate with added COVID-19 safety protocols, and new technologies to help create a safe experience for live events.

Sociology

Name:                         Lauren Walter
Major:                         Psychology and Sociology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Monica Longmore

This study aimed to examine how mothers and fathers reported their anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a sample of nine qualitative interviews selected from the Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study (TARS), and mothers’ and fathers’ reports of anxiety were analyzed. By utilizing the life course perspective, we can analyze how people (1) transition to adulthood, (2) develop their interpersonal and intimate relationships, and (3) utilize their time defining their social roles within their relationships. With this in mind, researchers can analyze the transitions to parenthood and how COVID-19 affects this transition. I analyzed how the COVID-19 pandemic added stressors to mothers’ and fathers’ lives in relation to their children and family dynamics. In addition, I analyzed how they responded to these stressors, specifically looking at the research literature involving idealized mothering. Previous research indicates that parenting remains gendered and mothers experience higher levels of stress when transitioning to parenthood due to the idea of idealized motherhood (Nomaguchi et al., 2020). This study aims to answer: (1) Are there differences between mothers’ and fathers’ anxiety since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic? (2) Do mothers demonstrate more anxiety due to their social roles within the family? (3) How do parental social roles play a part in keeping their children and families safe during the COVID-19 pandemic? The results demonstrated associations between mothers’ and fathers’ experiences, such as worrying about contracting COVID-19 and worrying about the economy and finances. Among participants who did not have children, they worried about the economy and finances similarly to fathers’ reports. Mothers more frequently mentioned keeping their children safe and healthy compared to fathers. After the analysis, I found that parenting does remain gendered, and that mothers and fathers reported on different stressors as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Name:                         Nathan Bostelman
Major:                         Biology and Sociology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Laura Sanchez

Participation in and utilization of the ""gig economy"" has seen significant growth, both in the last decade and in the last year thanks to the Covid-19 pandemic. Gig companies such as DoorDash, Uber, Grubhub, and Instacart offer workers a great deal of flexibility and independence in their worklife. This freedom, however, comes at a cost, as gig workers do not receive traditional employment or union benefits, such as health insurance (Friedman, 2014). Additionally, gig workers tend to be young, suggesting they are less wealthy and likely cannot purchase their own health insurance. This study analyzes rates of health insurance coverage and finds significant disparities between self-employed youths and their peers.

Name:                         Clara Barned
Major:                         Chemistry and Spanish
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Monica Longmore

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused thousands of parents to shift to remote working conditions while children attend school from home, creating a massive increase in the amount of time families spend together. Additionally, social distancing measures have eliminated physical contact between many family members outside of the same households. This project sought to investigate possible familial relationship changes as the COVID-19 pandemic progressed in the summer of 2020. This investigation used a small sampling of phone interviews from Bowling Green State University's Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study (TARS) that is a longitudinal study that has interviewed the same diverse group of people in the Toledo area from the sixth or eighth grade to today when the participants are 32 to 37 years old. This study utilized the TARS data from the most recent set of interviews regarding the COVID-19 pandemic and how it has changed the participant's lives. It was found that the majority of relationships between children and their parents have improved, while relationships between significant others were equally reported as either improving or deteriorating. There was no significant change reported in relationships with extended family. Most positive changes were attributed to increased quality time, while negative changes were said to be caused by an increase in arguments and disagreements.

Name:                         Kyra Williams-Davis
Major:                         sociology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Laura Sanchez

Using data from Phase 3 of the US Household Pulse Survey, with a sample of 69,944 (interviewed by either text or email), I examine the relationship between work status during COIVID-19, race, and education level. Prior research shows that those with college educations are more likely to have jobs that are suitable for remote working and more likely to be employed. It also shows that Black individuals are less likely to receive college educations, so they are less likely to have those remote-compatible jobs. I hypothesized that racial minorities (nonwhites) would be most likely to be unemployed during this time for Pandemic Job Reasons and Pandemic Health Reasons, and that those with an education level of Less than High School would be even more at risk. The findings indicate that all races with high school educations were less likely to be working than those with college educations. Asian respondents are most likely to be employed during the pandemic and more likely to be college educated, while Black respondents were more likely to be unemployed for Pandemic Job and Pandemic Health Reasons, and more likely to only have high school educations.

Theatre and Film

Name:                         Wyatt Boggs
Major:                         Music
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Micheal Ellison

Since Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) was released, film has been a very popular medium to explore science fiction due to its versatility and illusionary capabilities. While there are some, notable productions (such as Lazarus with David Bowie), musical theatre has left the realm of science fiction largely unexplored. In my research, I’ve found some very interested and captivating ways to explore space science fiction in musical theatre through the use of modern lighting, front projection, and visual illusions. For an example, the movie Oblivion (2013), uses front projection in its sky tower set and it provided a breath taking view for the viewer and an immersive experience for the actors (opposed to a green screen). That idea could be translated to a musical theatre set—especially due to today’s technology. The intimacy of theatre caused me to want to explore it has a medium for a science fiction story. There are also so many opportunities to really allow the production to pop out out to the audience and create a very captivating experience through the use of live actors and live special effects that, simply, cannot be done through film. For my presentation, I’d like to talk about these various ideas. I’d also like to utilize images and videos that may be used in the final production to help present some cinematic aspects more effectively.

Name:                         Reagan Shull
Major:                         Film Production
Addtl. Contributors:     Mo Orr (Film Production), Ahmad Ghanim (Film Production)
Mentors:                     Lucas Ostrowski

This Must Be the Place is a short film created by students of the Department of Theatre and Film to tell a story of a young woman who goes on a quest to find a missing acquaintance (and herself) along the way. This film deals with issues of identity in small-town USA, women-centered relationships, the very beginnings of friendship, and the difficulties of finding your way through life when you have to deal with all of the above. Inspired by the writers' (Reagan Shull and Mo Orr) own personal experiences growing up, this is a story that was crafted by a multitude of people with tremendous support from both the Department of Theatre and Film and the University, as well as the Bowling Green community. We are endlessly grateful to have Bowling Green State University's support when telling this important and deeply personal story of growing up and finding your own dream once you're able to find yourself. For this presentation, we will be presenting a trailer for the film to lead up to the film's September 2021 premiere in Toledo, OH.

Name:                         Ahmad Ghanim
Major:                         Film Production
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Cortland Rankin

Global issues today resemble Palestine's ongoing struggle with police brutality, being in a state of emergency, constant mourning, and dealing with trauma. Cinema helps us understand the Palestinian condition; therefore, Palestinian films have gained a new relevancy in today’s uncertain world. The purpose of this research is to investigate the role cinema has in articulating Palestinian identity and what part does the ongoing Palestinian-Israeli conflict play in shaping those visions of national identity. Using multiple cinematic representations on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, this study analyzed works that attempt to crystalize Palestinian national identity. I found that cinema is not just about language, which is a barrier, like borders, walls, oceans, and rivers separating people. Cinema can break down barriers because images do not have a language. Although Palestinians might not have the military power to tear down walls, they have the power to reach people from all around the world by simply picking up a camera and documenting their condition. Through my research, I have come closer to understanding the ability films have in allowing audiences to understand the other and in turn learn more about ourselves. Films can be used to damage people’s lives, or they can be used to uplift voices rarely heard. Additionally, what I have found is that by using cinema as a tool for cultural change and awareness, Palestinian filmmakers have gained a deeper understanding of their own identity in relation to the conflict, as well as the role it has in shaping voices that echo perseverance.

World Languages and Cultures

Name:                         Seneca Doty
Major:                         Spanish and Flight Technology and Operations
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Cynthia Ducar, Dr. Jacob Joshua Shila

The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of English and Spanish in the applied context of aviation by researching bilingual cockpit interactions. Data pooled from a survey of pilots who speak Spanish as a native language was used to recognize patterns between language acquisition and proficiency within the cockpit. For many of the questions, pilots were asked to rate on a likert scale how comfortable they felt in given situations that involved use of their non-native language in the professional context of aviation. Current international standards exist that evaluate a pilots’ ability to read, speak, write, and understand English, the official language of aviation, before a pilot is permitted to test for their license. However, issues still arise and can be attributed to a pilot speaking the limited English register of aviation English. This study investigates pilots´ in-flight experiences in relation to language proficiency in the hopes of improving future standards of communication. Research on this topic will contribute to a proactive safety culture in which recommendations are made in the hopes of preventing future accidents.

Name:                         Clara Barned, Seneca Doty 
Major:                         Chemistry and Spanish, Aviation Studies and Spanish
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Carles Ferrando Valero

Throughout history, women authors have oftentimes been overlooked or ignored, even if they were just as talented as their male counterparts. Women’s perspectives on important historical moments are often left out of textbooks, leaving a major portion of the story untold. For author Faustina Sáez de Melgar, these hidden narratives often included abolitionist movements, calls for greater access to education for women, and a fiercely patriotic viewpoint which often contradicted her other beliefs. These views were blatantly displayed in her collection of poetic works entitled ""África y España: cantos poéticos escritos con motivo de la guerra de Marruecos"", which dealt with the topic of the Spanish-Moroccan war which was fought in 1859-1860. This conflict arose due to certain issues with the borders of the Spanish city of Ceuta in Morocco, which represented centuries of imperialist policies first by Portugal and later by Spain. Due to the importance of these events in both the formation of Melgar as a writer and the history of Spain’s colonialist policies, her poetic works in ""África y España"" were compiled, edited, and historical footnotes were added in order to better understand Melgar as an author and the historical circumstances in which she wrote.

Name:                         Emily Meyer
Major:                         World Language Education - Spanish
Addtl. Contributors:     Gabriella Spatz (Architecture and Environmental Design), Celeste Vanfossen (Biology)
Mentors:                     Carles Ferrando Valero

This project analyzes a work of Spanish literature from the 19th century. Specifically, the analysis of ""Era apacible el dia"" relates the historical, cultural, and social aspects of 19th century Spain to the text. As well as analysis, we have annotated our selected work to improve comprehension. Our primary goal was to provide a tangible final product, by responding to the following research directives. We explored how to help define aspects of nineteenth-century literature to help Spanish-language learners better comprehend the full impact and context of a literary work. Within this, we also investigated what methods of annotations Spanish-language learners are better able to comprehend. In using this specific poem, we also expanded upon how to better include women within the canon of Spanish literature. Finally, by including this work in the online textbook we are elevating the voices of female authors in world language curriculum.

Marketing

Name:                         Jessica Bragg
Major:                         Marketing
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Heath Diehl

For my Honors Project at BGSU, I have written a romance novel with an emphasis on travel and international business. I have worked alongside Dr. Heath Diehl and Professor Bryan Gattozzi to refine my writing, revision, and reflection skills throughout the past two semesters of the 2020-2021 school year. My goal each week was to complete around 5,000 words which ultimately equalled around one chapter. This novel is based on a personal experience I had onboard a Mediterranean cruise about two years ago, and I have incorporated my knowledge of the romance genre to create a 200-page fiction manuscript. I also completed extensive research on the writing process, romance genre, and Mediterranean area of Europe to help ensure that the novel possesses accurate information. Completing this project has made me a much better writer, student, and critical thinker. I feel capable of completing any project I choose, regardless of how outside my comfort zone it may be; a romance novel was an arbitrary choice for a Business major, but I am thrilled with the comprehensive range of skills it has provided me. Next steps for this project may include self-publishing or looking into professional editing.

* CURS Project_Jessica Bragg.pdf
CURS Project_Jessica Bragg PRESENTATION
* CURS Transcript_Jessica Bragg.pdf
CURS Project_Jessica Bragg TRANSCRIPT

Name:                         Brianna Koller
Major:                         International Business & Marketing
Addtl. Contributors:     Kate Adelman (Forensic Science & Spanish)
Mentors:                     Carles Ferrando Valero

Our project is based off of the roles women played during the 19th century and how these gender roles compare to present day gender roles for women. We analyzed the first chapter of “La mujer del porvenir” or “the future woman,” by Doña Concepcion Arenal, to gain insight on what the gender roles were for women in the 19th century.

School of Family and Consumer Sciences

Name:                         Courtney Bockbrader
Major:                         Human Development and Family Studies
Addtl. Contributors:     Patrick Caniglia (Human Development and Family Studies), Kassidy Lefevre (Human Development and Family Studies)
Mentors:                     Deborah Wooldridge

Post-adoption services are vital to ensuring the success and permanence of older-child adoptions. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of economic struggles on the types of post-adoption services utilized by families using a local adoption agency, Adopt America Network. The types of services offered, from least to most intensive, were labeled as Universal, Selective, and Indicated. A total of 15 families were included in this pilot study. Using logistic regression, it was found that lesser ability to purchase necessary items for children, as well as insecurity with the ability to pay bills each month were both significantly associated with a need for higher intensity Indicated services. The implications of this study may be that funding should be directed towards higher intensity services in order to best serve those most in need, especially when the population being served is largely low-income status.

Name:                         Edwin Prime-Orr
Major:                         Human Development and Family Studies
Addtl. Contributors:     Tylre Brock (HDFS Major), Sarah Carroll (HDFS Major), Daeqwon Plowden (HDFS Major), Emily Wiesenmayer (HDFS Major)
Mentors:                     Dr. Laura Landry-Meyer

Name(s): Edwin Prime-Orr, Tylre Brock, Sarah Carroll, Dawqwon Plowden & Emily Wiesenmayer Major(s): Human Development & Family Studies Institution: Bowling Green State University Faculty Mentor: Dr. Laura Landry-Meyer Program: The Gen-Z Program: Internalized Morality The Gen-Z Programmers’ examine principles of family life education [FLE] in conjunction with ability to plan, implement, and evaluate programs. The program ‘The Gen-Z Program: Internalized Morality’ was developed in collaboration as a team throughout the semester applying a cooperative learning framework while working together. The average time of ten hours per week during class and outside of class was built-in to the course schedule to facilitate work and decrease scheduling conflicts. The Gen-Z Programmers’ collaborated to design a program with self appraisal of professional competence and teamwork skills. The Gen-Z Programmers’ translated theory, research and evidence-based information through identifying, examining and applying internalized morality of late-adolescents to personal autonomy and social responsibility. The team aims to strengthen internalized morality by applying personal autonomy and social responsibility. Demonstration of sensitivity to diversity and community needs, concerns and multicultural interests, gender fairness and special needs aware are found with the program. The Gen-Z Programmers’ design educational experiences through the development of various Icebreakers: ‘Moral Cloud’, ‘Gen-Z Jeopardy’, ‘Cloud Highway’, their goal, objective writing, content development, implementation strategies, and evaluation measures. The team synthesizes their program’s “The Gen-Z Program: Internalized Morality’ components in order to develop a family life education program manual and funding proposal. The established program by the Gen-Z Programmers’ encourages positive development among late adolescents at Bowling Green State University to spend more time actively participating and acting out positive changes within their personal lives, helping them overcome struggles they have, ultimately creating a better and healthier lifestyle for years to follow. Focusing on those aspects will empower the overall quality of life promoting personal autonomy and social responsibility following these actions. The research of their program shows that at this life stage, internalized morality is a big part of personality development and predicts behaviors. Developing a sense of internalized morality is vital in the life stage of late adolescence as they begin exploring what personal autonomy and social responsibility looks like for each individual. The ‘Gen-Z Program: Internalized Morality’ aims to assist individuals in the late adolescence life-stage by showing them how they can continue to be themselves while also making decisions that will change their future for better or worse.

Name:                         Alexia Larson
Major:                         Gerontology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Laura Landry Meyer

Individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) experience discrimination. With approximately 70% of people over age of 65 estimated to utilize long-term care (LTC) and an expected 5 million people over age 65 who identify as LGBT by the year 2030 (AARP, 2021), the identification of support needed to overcome discrimination obstacles is needed. Using a meta-analysis of research literature, I focused on the obstacles, such as fear of abuse, physical and mental health complications, and financial limitations. The research is to inform the LTC Ombudsman program’s staff and volunteer training in northwest Ohio. The LTC Ombudsman advocates for residents’ rights and monitors LTC. Using the purpose to advocate for an inclusive approach to support and LTC, results will inform a training program. Sensitivity training and awareness about LGBT older adults’ needs in a residential setting can overcome obstacles related to LGBT discrimination is effective (Holman et. al, 2020). Training topics will be recommended for LTC Ombudsman volunteers and staff for the northwest Ohio office.

Name:                         Kassidy Lefevre
Major:                         Human Development and Family Studies
Addtl. Contributors:     Courtney Bockbrader (Human Development and Family Studies), Patrick Caniglia (Human Development and Family Studies)
Mentors:                     Deborah Wooldridge

Post-adoption services are vital to ensuring the success and permanence of older-child adoptions. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of economic struggles on the types of post-adoption services utilized by families using an adoption agency in Northwest Ohio, Adopt America Network. The types of services offered, from least to most intensive, were labeled as Universal, Selective, and Indicated. A total of 15 families were included in this pilot study. Responses were collected via an online survey from March to October of 2020, and all of the families who were accessing services during this time frame are included in the data set. Using logistic regression, it was found that lesser ability to purchase necessary items for children, as well as insecurity with the ability to pay bills each month were both significantly associated with a need for higher intensity Indicated services. Neither of these economic indicators had significant associations with Universal or Selective services. The implications of this study may be that funding should be directed towards higher intensity services in order to best serve those most in need, especially when the population being served is largely low-income status.

Education

Name:                         Li Post
Major:                         Integrated Language Arts Education
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Joanna Weaver

Under the Compact of the Free Association (1983) treaties, Marshallese immigrants are free to live and work indefinitely in the U.S. without visas; however, American educators have not been equipped with information and resources that can be used to address the cultural and linguistic diversity of their new neighbors. As Hilda C. Heine, former secretary of the Marshall Islands, posits, “there is virtually no information out there about how Marshallese students learn, what values and expectations they bring with them to school, and how these values and expectations are nurtured and promoted by families and support systems in school and in host U.S. communities” (2002, p. 3). There are also few resources available in English that describe the Marshallese language, making it difficult for English teachers to draw upon students’ native language for language transfer. Therefore, my research question considers which resources and pedagogical practices can help Marshallese immigrants succeed within the American education system. To address this question, I researched, created, and compiled resources that discuss potential classroom barriers, most of which stem from different academic and cultural expectations. Resources were also created to illustrate major distinctions between the English and Marshallese languages in order to predict where Marshallese English language learners may struggle with English grammatical concepts. Overall, this presentation will address the scope of the research and important findings, all of which are rooted in Marshallese voices and research.

Name:                         Sarah Herrick
Major:                         Tourism, Hospitality, and Event Management (THEM)
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Hyungsuk Choo

Many people say they are environmentally conscious, yet they do not adopt actions in their daily life to proactively be environmentally friendly. Specifically, visitors to National Parks are often thought to be environment friendly but do not always behave so. It is often found visitors leave trash when taking a day or an overnight trip to our nations natural and most pristine wonders. This study investigates how we might instill a pro-environment behavior in college-age students who have or plan to visit the National Parks. This analysis examines the relationships of the Theory of Planned Behavior, perceptions, and intentions to determine the best solution to the problem of pollution in our National Parks. A scenario with three yes or no questions and one open-ended question were asked and answered by a total of 32 college-age students. Of those 32 respondents, 93.8% said they would participate in a recycling program from a reward system, 96.8% said with a social marketing reward, and 71.9% said they would participate in a recycling program with a penalty system. Very few studies have been done like this among college-age students. Although this study surveys a small portion of college-age people, the findings fit into a much larger picture that is being pro-environment.

School of Counseling and Special Education

Name:                         Marina Pennycuff
Major:                         Psychology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Susan Peet, Robin DuFresne

For this project, I investigated the importance of bibliotherapy with school-aged children through the construction of my own children’s book that is focused around social-emotional aspects that are important for development. The main topic for this book was stressful situations for children and ways to handle them. This project allowed me to have a hands-on approach in researching this central topic. Another major goal for this project was that it would grant me the ability to create a physical copy of a book that I would be able to use as a tool in my future career working with elementary school-aged children. Therefore, the research behind this project was heavily aimed at the topic of how and in what instances bibliotherapy is utilized. The topic of the construction of children’s books was also researched. Having the knowledge and actual application of bibliotherapy will be highly beneficial to me for the future in both graduate school and career settings.

Name:                         Erin Coran
Major:                         Communication Sciences and Disorders
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Brittany Joseph

Utilizing the timeless art forms of quilting and embroidery, I hope to expand the fields of both community art and disability studies through a collaborative quilt project with Wood County Board of Developmental Disabilities (WCBDD). During a facilitated workshop, six artists with intellectual/developmental disabilities decorated triangle quilt pieces with images and phrases about their favorite recreation, athletic, and self-advocacy opportunities offered at WCBDD. Following this workshop, I utilized embroidery art to embellish and enhance the drawings and colorings done by the participants as well as creating three triangles to showcase the WCBDD mission statement. The nine triangles will then be hand-stitched together into a pyramid shape, representing the WCBDD logo. Finally, the quilt will be hand assembled together by community members with and without disabilities. Through the displaying of this community quilt, the creative and applied research elements of this project will continue to promote diversity and inclusion throughout Bowling Green. Although the final quilt will ultimately be a gift to WCBDD, the community at large will hopefully benefit from the showcasing of this quilt on BGSU’s campus as well as other staple Bowling Green locations. Viewers of this quilt will hopefully be positively impacted by the talented and dynamic artwork of my friends from the Wood County Board of Developmental Disabilities for years to come.

Communication Science and Disorders

Name:                         Bailey Towns
Major:                         Communication Sciences and Disorders
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Tim Brackenbury

American Sign Language (ASL) is a visual language in which each sign has five parameters: hand shape, palm orientation, location on the body, movement, and non-manual markers. Textbooks for ASL courses display the vocab in a single picture on the page, which can result in confusion for some of the sign parameters. For students, these problems can lead to poor understanding of ASL vocabulary which may result in low intelligibility. Sign intelligibility is defined as “the extent to which a viewer can understand a signer’s message and may incorporate aspects of production, including the clarity and accuracy of sign production,” (Crowe, Marschar, McLeod, 2019). If students lack understanding of certain aspects, or parameters, of signs they may not be able to get their message across to a viewer, which creates a barrier in communication. This study investigates the following research question: Do hearing college students who have no experience with American Sign Language imitate signs better when they learn from animations or pictures? The project examines the difference in participant's novel sign accuracy between groups who are exposed to picture representations versus animated representations of signs.

Name:                         Anna Birkemeier
Major:                         Communication Disorders
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Ronald Scherer

Objectives / Introduction: Mask-wearing has become commonplace for the public during the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. This has caused communication difficulties such as muffled speech, causing a lowered speech intelligibility and worse audibility. The purpose of this study was to determine the acoustic filtering effects of various masks. Methods / Study Design: The acoustic effects of a surgical mask, a Singer’s Mask, and an N95 mask were obtained. A single subject spoke (and repeated) the vowels /a,i,u/ and the consonants /s, ∫/, and sang the vowels on G4 and C5 with and without the masks, respectively. Spectra of the vowels and long-term average spectra of the consonants were used to obtain comparative results. Results: All of the masks created high frequency energy attenuation from zero to 15 dB in various locations of the acoustic spectrum. The masks typically act as a low pass filter, meaning that the mask attenuates higher frequencies. For speech, the N95 mask had the highest level of attenuation for the vowels and consonants around the formants and salient locations. The surgical mask had the least amount of attenuation around the formants and salient locations. Conclusions: Communication difficulties with using masks tend to reduce energy in frequencies above the first formant. This may lead to difficult listening conditions by reducing the ability to understand what is said or what is sung.

Name:                         Sarah Painter
Major:                         Communication Sciences and Disorders
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Colleen Fitzgerald

The American Speech-Language Hearing Association states that Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs) should collaborate with other professionals, including Intervention Specialists (ISs). In recent decades, there has been a shift from pull-out therapy, where students are removed from the classroom for services, to push-in therapy, which takes place within the classroom. This shift has resulted in greater overlap in SLP-IS caseloads. However, there is little known about the collaborative practices of these professionals. This study aimed to investigate this gap by using surveys to address two main questions. 1) What is the focus, modality, and frequency of collaboration between SLPs and ISs? 2) What do these professionals perceive as benefits and barriers to collaboration? Other questions addressed demographic data and changes resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were school-based SLPs and ISs recruited via email. Descriptive statistics were reported for closed-ended questions, with comparisons between SLP-IS responses highlighted. Trends from these results and themes from open-ended questions were identified through qualitative analysis. Results indicated SLPs contribute more to curricula development with ISs than with General Education Teachers. Email was not used as frequently as expected, even with limited planning time. The number of SLPs who reported having informal interactions daily decreased this year compared to last year, with a shift toward more SLPs reporting these types of interactions weekly. This study provided insights into collaborative practices and allows SLPs and ISs to reflect on existing barriers. Future studies may find additional ways to combat limitations and serve clients better.

Name:                         Erin Coran
Major:                         Communication Sciences and Disorders
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Cynthia Spitler

Opening Minds Through Art (OMA) is a visual arts program designed to connect people with dementia to young adults in a community-based setting. During facilitated events, the artist participants have a chance to paint and express themselves through creativity and imagination while forming friendships with younger generations. Programs such as OMA are especially impactful because they offer alternative methods of communication and expression for people experiencing cognitive and linguistic impairments as a result of dementia (Lokon et al., 2016). The purpose of this presentation is to share existing research on OMA’s evidence-based programming with a specific focus on the reciprocal benefits for both the adults with dementia and the college-aged volunteers. Intergenerational programming such as Opening Minds Through Art can connect community members that would otherwise not interact at all. Additionally, this presentation will touch on the implications that OMA’s program can have on the growing fields of gerontology and health professions such as recreation therapy. An interdisciplinary approach was taken during the research process in order to highlight the many professions that could be impacted by programs like OMA for years to come.

Name:                         Rachel McManamon
Major:                         Communication Sciences and Disorders
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Dr. Tim Brackenbury and Megan Wilson

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder that impairs the ability of an individual to communicate, form relationships, and restricts their behaviors. While there is much about ASD that remains unknown, there is a wealth of research in the discipline of Communication Sciences and Disorders, particularly in the linguistic area of pragmatics, or social interaction. Characteristics of ASD pertaining to pragmatics can vary significantly from person to person. Most commonly, individuals with ASD struggle with relating to the emotions of others, choosing appropriate topics for conversation, initiating interactions, and feeling comfortable with others

While often used to help treat physical or mental health conditions, there has been a recent rise in animal assisted therapy for individuals with developmental disabilities. For conditions such as ASD, the therapy animals mainly serve to facilitate interactions, as well as comfort the individual and reduce negative emotions and behaviors associated with ASD. 

Our study looks specifically at potential impacts of therapy animals – specifically dogs – on ASD children’s development in the area of pragmatics and relationship forming. This includes potential increases in social skills and overall comfort levels of the child, as well as decreases in the negative behaviors, such as withdrawal and lack of eye contact, that are typically associated with ASD. 

We examined reported changes in a child’s language and communication skills, as well as the behavioral symptoms of their ASD from the perspective of their parents. Specifically, the more specific aspects of language that are affected by the presence of a therapy dog and some cause-and-effect relationships. The mother of a child with ASD was interviewed about her child’s communication skills, their service dog, and its observed impacts on the child’s language development. Four primary themes emerged from a qualitative analysis of the interview: responsibility, confidence, fitting in with peers, and spontaneous language use. 

Name:                         Lauren Sullivan
Major:                         Communication Sciences and Disorders
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Jason Whitfield

Speech production treatments often target effortful speaking styles (e.g., clear or loud speech) that aim to increase the neuromuscular drive of the speech motor system (e.g., Lam & Tjaden, 2016; Ramig et al., 2018). The Lee Silverman Voice Treatment-LOUD (LSVT-LOUD) has shown to increase measures of vocal loudness in individuals with Parkinson Disease (PD). However, the extent to which LSVT-ARTIC improves articulation has yet to be quantified. The specify purpose of this investigation was to quantify, the extent to which LSVT-ARTIC has on improving measures of articulation in individuals with PD.

Food and Nutrition

Name:                         Elizabeth Rogers
Major:                         Nutrition Science
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Jonathan Kershaw

Objective Our research question is: is there a difference in food choice values of those who choose plant-based dining options vs those who choose meat-based dining options? Our hypothesis is; sustainability/health involvement and self-reported sustainability/health behavior positively effects plant-based food choice. Methods Consumer panels were recruited from BGSU’s campus and were incentivized for their participation. Sample preparation and pick up was conducted at the Oaks Dining Hall at Bowling Green State University. Consumers were served two sample tacos, one vegan and one meat-based. Panelists were provided a QR code containing the survey. Each survey included a prompt indicating what sample to consume, followed by four sensory questions about the sample, presented in a 9-point likert scale. The survey then directed participants to a page with a 30 second timer count down before prompting them to evaluate the other sample, followed by the same four sensory questions. After the samples are evaluated, the panelists are directed to an additional survey about food-choice motives, regarding sustainability/health involvement or sustainability/health self-reported behavior. This survey consisted of eight self-reported health behavior statement, seven sustainability self-reported behavior statements, four health involvement statements, and four sustainability involvement statements. Each statement was presented in a 5-point hedonic scale. Results We did not find differences in the characteristics of sustainability/health involvement or sustainability/health self-reported behaviors between those that chose vegan and those that chose meat. Among both groups, vegan choosers and meat choosers, involvement in healthy eating was higher than involvement in sustainable eating, but there was no difference in self-reported healthy eating and sustainable eating. Conclusions The student demographic we chose is more homogenous than the general population so we didn’t see a significant difference in the food choice values of vegan choosers and meat choosers. Among both groups, involvement in healthy eating was significantly higher than involvement in sustainable eating. This provides a beneficial starting point for discussion and further research.

Name:                         Anna Loveland
Major:                         Dietetics
Addtl. Contributors:     Claire Reynolds (Dietetics)
Mentors:                     Carrie Hamady

College students are at risk for food insecurity due to the increasing cost of higher education and the rising number of students from other countries and underserved communities. University food pantries rely on donations and food banks, which lack culturally appropriate and allergy-free foods. The purpose of our research was to determine food preferences and potential barriers of international students (IS) and students with food allergies (SFA) in order to stock food pantries with the appropriate items. SFA and IS were recruited during fall 2020 via email and social media for the online survey and focus groups. Survey questions included previous food pantry participation, barriers to participation, and desired food staples. Data were collected using Qualtrics software. The focus groups were held via Zoom meeting. The focus group discussion concentrated on clarifying survey answers, barriers to participation, and other beneficial resources. IS (n = 24) and SFA (n = 18) completed the survey. IS and SFA indicated the following unique food preferences: seaweed, kimchi, fire noodles, bulgur, lemongrass, seafood, vegan options, and general allergen-free food. Other staples included lentils, milk alternatives, and increased variety of fruits/vegetables. Focus group participants included students with FA (n=2) and IS (n=6). Data is still being collected for focus groups. Supplying an on-campus food pantry with culturally appropriate and safe foods may help increase participation at university food pantries. Providing safe and accessible food to the campus community leads to improved nutritional status, performance in the classroom, and overall well-being of university students.

Name:                         Sarah Hipply
Major:                         Dietetics
Addtl. Contributors:     Mackenzie Lambert (Dietetics)
Mentors:                     Mary-Jon Judy, Carrie Hamady

Studies have shown that the older adult population is at a heightened risk for malnourishment and food insecurity. Older adults have an increased need for certain nutrients; however, physical challenges, decreased ability to absorb nutrients, and altered social environment may make it difficult to obtain adequate nutrition. Adding to the concern is the fact that the older population is growing. The aging of the “Baby Boomer” generation and the lasting effects of the COVID-19 pandemic both contribute to the growing percentage of at-risk older adults in our population. Due to social distancing requirements, many of the activities that were being done for outreach with the aging population had to be cancelled. Congregate meals and activities can no longer be done. For this reason, our group formulated the idea for this CURS project, “Quarantine Cooking: In a Pinch,” with the aim to benefit the older adult population of Wood County. We conducted two live, hour-long Zoom sessions that consisted of cooking demonstrations with nutrition education integrated throughout. The nutrition education focused on making small changes to incorporate more nutrient dense foods, like eating the rainbow, omega-3 fats, and fiber. Participants were given grocery bags full of the ingredients needed for both cooking classes. They also expressed their enjoyment with the cooking demo and the information we shared.

Name:                         Lisa Langhals
Major:                         Dietetics
Addtl. Contributors:     Darby Borton (Dietetics), Abigail Corey (Dietetics)
Mentors:                     Mary-Jon Ludy, Tim Brackenbury

A natural disaster can strike anywhere, but the aftermath is generally most adverse in low socioeconomic status areas. Although little research has been done on meeting nutritional standards as part of disaster recovery, the evidence suggests that the preparedness planning to meet nutritional standards needs should be prioritized. Therefore our research questions were: (1) As a nutrition professional, what emergency food issues were observed? (2) As a nutrition professional, what could be done differently to alleviate these issues? (3) What strategies and procedures can be established to meet individuals' nutritional needs affected by a natural disaster? For our methods, video interviews with faculty members from the Food and Nutrition Programs and nutrition professionals from areas affected by recent hurricanes took place during the Fall 2020 and Spring 2021 semester. Qualitative data analysis began in the Fall 2020 semester and continues in the Spring 2021 semester. The primary data is being examined for commonly used words and phrases and those used with remarkable emotions. The data is being categorized and coded manually. All data are being compared independently by each of the three research team members to identify trends and gaps within the recovery effects. Assessment of the different hurricanes is also being compared to determine if the other areas received comparable disaster relief (e.g., US mainland vs. territories).

Name:                         Madelyn Huzyak
Major:                         Dietetics
Addtl. Contributors:     Natalie Nieschwitz (Dietetics)
Mentors:                     Mary-Jon Ludy, Amy Morgan

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the lives of university students, impacting mental health, academic success, and overall wellness. The purpose of this research was to investigate how universities can best prepare for emergencies and best support students during times of uncertainty. An online survey administered in October/November 2020 included questions surrounding physical and mental wellbeing, academics, and lifestyle changes due to the pandemic. International data sets were compared from several higher education institutions in Asia, Europe, and North America (including the U.S. and BGSU). This provided student perspectives regarding how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted higher education. Themes gathered included dissatisfaction with online course delivery, a desire for more faculty support, increased financial stress, and calls to improve campus readiness for future large-scale emergencies. Specifically, student responses indicate a need for institutions to provide increased mental and emotional support, both from academic instructors and counseling staff. Student responses called for institutional flexibility surrounding financial aid, grading, and absence policies. Students also expressed desire for flexibility in instruction, including looser attendance policies, more relaxed academic expectations, and increased understanding from faculty. Students also expressed the need for online course improvement, particularly on-going faculty professional development for technology use, enhanced online course components, and transition from in-person to online or remote learning formats. Collectively, these findings support the need for institutions of higher education to improve disaster readiness, provide academic and mental health support for students, and support both staff and students during transition from normal to alternative learning environments.

Name:                         Abigail Prendergast
Major:                         Nutrition Sciences
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Kerri Knippen

This study aims to evaluate the nutritional impact the COVID-19 pandemic has had on children within the U.S. by assessing how children’s nutritional patterns have changed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, determining how these changes are impacted by participation in school federal nutrition assistance programs, and exploring additional food-related barriers the COVID-19 pandemic has created for families. A cross-sectional survey of American parents was used to evaluate changes to their children’s nutritional patterns. Data was collected through an electronic survey administered through the Qualtrics platform. Participants were recruited through Facebook advertisements and the distribution of electronic survey links. The COVID-19 pandemic did not cause a significant shift in intake of foods from the major food groups. It did result in increased snacking, particularly on processed foods. There were no correlations between nutritional patterns and participation in school nutrition assistance programs, although many parents now perceive these programs as more important. The COVID-19 pandemic also impacted shopping patterns, leading families to make less grocery store trips and purchase more shelf-stable foods. The increase in snacking on processed foods raises concerns about childhood obesity and other health issues. School nutrition programs are being perceived as increasingly important, and officials should ensure that all children can access these programs. The economic fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic has hampered many families’ food purchasing patterns. Health officials and policy makers should consider the lasting impacts these changes may have on children’s lives as they implement strategies to combat the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Name:                         Emma Williams
Major:                         Nutrition Sciences
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Jonathan Kershaw

Cheese is a product that has been manufactured for thousands of years but has taken quite some time to perfect. Sensory aspects of cheese can be affected by a number of different factors including, the type of milk that is used, the microbial starter strain used, how long the cheese is aged for and what conditions the cheese is kept at during aging. Food scientists have been trying to understand and control these factors and their effect on cheese flavor development for some time because sensory is relevant to food and the consumer demand of food products. Sensory analysis of different food products can determine its market value and how we select our food. This is an important issue as the popularity of craft cheeses and interest in cheese making has increased in recent years. This study focuses on the effect of aging time and microbial starter used on textural aspects of Brie cheese.

* The Impact of Incubation Time and Starter Cul_Emma Williams.pdf
The Impact of Incubation Time and Starter Cul_Emma Williams POSTER

Social Work

Name:                         Shannon Williams
Major:                         Social Work
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Vivian Miller

A systemic review of the literature on the social isolation experienced by older adults in nursing homes and assisted living facilities to understand how healthcare workers impact these feelings. The loneliness experienced in senior living facilities has negative affects on residence, like depression. The PRISMA flow diagram is utilized to narrow-down relevant research. Results found that a friendship-oriented relationship has a positive impact on the physical, mental, and emotional health of older adults.

Department of Public and Allied Health

Name:                         Clay Hoffner
Major:                         Music Education
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Daniel Piccolo

Student will present the research that they have done with some un-released works by percussion composer Charlie Wilcoxon, as well as what the plans for these pieces are in the future.

School of Human Movement, Sport, & Leisure Studies

Name:                         Ayla Arrington
Major:                         EXSC
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Andrea Cripps

The purpose of this study is to gather information of concussions sustained in interscholastic athletes for later analysis. In this study the effect a concussion has on interscholastic athletes is measured using ImPACT testing. ImPACT testing is an objective tool used to aid healthcare providers in making informed decisions when deciding on a player’s treatment and return to play after sustaining a concussion. This test measures an athlete’s motor speed, symbol match, visual and verbal memory, and reaction time. The data was provided through partnership with Mercy Healthcare. Once received the data was analyzed to remove individuals in which information was repeated or lacked the necessary information, including age, sex and number of concussions. From there the data including age, sex, number of concussions, and all test measures were kept and analyzed. Once analyzed for mean and standard deviation for test scores it was categorized into six table. The tables include the following comparisons, 1. Normative composite values for all subjects, 2. Normative composite values for all subjects based upon number of concussions reported, 3. Normative composite values for subjects based upon sex, 4. Normative composite values for subjects based upon sex and number of concussion, 5. Normative composite values for subjects based upon age and sex, 6. Normative composite values for subjects based upon age, sex, and number of concussion. The data from these table will later be used in analysis of the effects of the test descriptives in relation to age, sex, and number of concussions.

Name:                         Audrey Schweers
Major:                         Health Science
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Nathan Peters

Exercise is important to maintaining a healthy weight and decreasing the risk of health-related diseases. Self-efficacy is a psychological concept that, when increased, can help a person to overcome a particular situation. In exercise, a person with high self-efficacy is able to better adhere to a program. It is a goal of The American Council on Exercise (ACE) to educate their personal trainers on ways to increase their clients' self-efficacy. This study was conducted to determine if women who have hired a personal trainer at the Bowling Green State University (BGSU) Student Recreation Center (SRC) in the past five years had an increase in self-reported self-efficacy. An online survey, via BGSU Qualtrics was distributed. The survey consisted of four parts; demographics, quantitative information regarding personal training, and a before and after section regarding self-efficacy questions. The research suggested that the self-efficacy of participants increased as a whole, although seven women reported an increase in self-efficacy, seven women reported a decrease in self-efficacy and three reported no change in self-efficacy. The overall increase was observed specifically in mastery experiences, a specific source of self-efficacy.

Name:                         Kassidy Fark
Major:                         Exercise Science
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Jessica Kiss

This presentation will cover an undergraduate Honors Project exploring the use of exercise as part of the treatment plan in eating disorder rehabilitation programs. To understand the current use of exercise in outpatient eating disorder rehabilitation centers, a survey was conducted. The two major research questions covered in this survey included ""Are outpatient eating disorder rehabilitation programs currently incorporating exercise into their treatment program? and ""Are outpatient eating disorder rehabilitation programs currently incorporating individualized exercise for clients in the treatment programs?"" Three results were collected from the survey analysis and addressed the research questions. These three results indicated the use of exercise into their treatment programs, but were not synchronous in the use of individualized exercise in outpatient treatment programs. Additional research will be conducted at the Master's level resuming Fall 2021.

College of Musical Arts

Name:                         Clay Hoffner
Major:                         Music Education
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Daniel Piccolo

Student will present the research that they have done with some un-released works by percussion composer Charlie Wilcoxon, as well as what the plans for these pieces are in the future.

Name:                         Steven Naylor
Major:                         Music Performance and Music Composition
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Laura Melton

This year, I had the opportunity to commission a female composer to write a piece of music for me to perform; the resulting piece is about the life cycle of stars. This commission is the culmination of years of studying piano, a fascination with astronomy, a passion to perform and teach about underrepresented composers, and a personal connection to a former teacher and beloved friend. Through this presentation, I discuss the influences behind this commission, my own journey of learning about underrepresented composers, and the importance of highlighting them in today’s classical music world.

ECET

Name:                         Noah Pennel
Major:                         ECET
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Resmi Krishnankuttyrema

To anyone, spending money on home security or any other form of security in that matter is something that is not given a second look. If someone has something worth protecting, they will always try and protect it no matter what the cost is. Protecting your home/property/family is most likely the one thing on someone’s mind when purchasing a home especially when you start to have a family and to even make sure what you have earned for you and your family is safe. The problem that I want to focus on is to design and create a device that can be used to alert if there is movement in a particular area of your home/residential apartment and monitor the situation and take appropriate actions using an app to get help if needed.

Name:                         Blain Keckler
Major:                         Engineering Technology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Qi Guo

Detailed description of the thorough research and inspection of the Hydraulic Automotive Jack. The process of deconstructing the machine and the analysis of all of its parts. The reverse engineering of the machine to reconstruct all of its parts within the SolidWorks CAD program. Along with the detailed description of the conclusions that I made with the overall original efficiency of the machine while also describing my thought process on how I could make the machine more adequate for the user.

Name:                         Nathan Pohlman
Major:                         Electronic and Computer Engineering Technology
Addtl. Contributors:     Jacob Schriner (Electronic and Computer Engineering Technology)
Mentors:                     Resmi Krishnankuttyrema

A problem in today’s society is having accessible drinking water available to everyone. Even where there is water, it may be contaminated or dirty. The goal of this project is to design a device that will tell the pH and turbidity of liquids that may seem drinkable. The design of the device is going to contain an Arduino UNO microcontroller, a pH sensor, and a turbidity sensor. The Arduino microcontroller will be programmed to receive the information given by the turbidity and pH sensors. Turbidity sensors measure the clarity of the water. This is done by measuring how light scatters when it bounces off the particles in the water. As water turbidity increases, the water becomes less drinkable. The pH sensor is used to measure the acidity or basicity of the water. Based on the pH level that is measured, you can conclude if the water has chemicals or other acids in it that may cause harm. The Arduino UNO REV3 board was chosen because it has 14 digital input/output pins, 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button. The board will be connected to a wireless transmitter and will transmit the data to a monitor. The monitor will display the turbidity level and the pH level. In conclusion, the project includes building a water quality testing device using an Arduino microcontroller, pH sensor, and turbidity sensor. The data received from the microcontroller will be sent wirelessly to a monitor that will display the data.

School of the Built Environment

Name:                         Betty Krodel
Major:                         Architecture
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Arsenio Rodrigues

COVID-19 has had a drastic impact on our daily routines and the ways in which we utilize residential architecture. Since March of 2020, researchers have pulled together to explore the impact the built environment can have on the transmission of the virus. Much of this research has focused necessarily on public spaces, but recent news articles, financial lending trends and home sales data indicate that a better understanding of how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed our expectations for residential spaces is also worthy of exploration. After experiencing state-wide stay-at-home orders and quarantine restrictions, Americans are using and thinking about their personal spaces in unprecedented ways. Low interest rates encouraged record home sales in mid to late 2020 despite poor or negative growth in most other areas of the economy. A study published in August of that year by LendEDU found that 55% of homeowners that had purchased since the beginning of the pandemic regretted their decision to buy. If purchasing larger homes isn’t a solution for even those that can afford it, what is? The question then becomes, what are the newly emerged issues facing home occupants that causes them to be satisfied or dissatisfied with the functionality of their homes? This research focuses on exploring what new functions home occupants may be utilizing their spaces for and how they have adapted those living areas. Two specific lines of inquiring, the home as a place for work and the home as the center of recreation activities, have been investigated.

Firelands Campus

Name:                         Tristan Hicks
Major:                         Chemistry
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Subha Nagarajan

Recent studies have indicated that, increased amounts of non-nitrate Nitrogen or Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) in Lake Erie have been correlated to cyanobacterial bloom biomass. Current methods for measuring TKN are labor intensive and involve toxic chemicals such as, boiling sulfuric acid and Mercury. The goal of this project is test and validate the accuracy of the Hach sTKN method for measuring TKN in wastewater and Lake Water samples. The sTKN method calculates TKN by spectroscopically measuring concentrations of total nitrogen and nitrates and nitrites. The method does not involve use of Mercury and measurement can be completed in less than 90 minutes. To verify the validity of the method, a number of analytical standards were analyzed. Mixed standards were also used to test the validity of the method. Preliminary results from analysis indicates that sTKN process and measurement is a viable alternative to traditional methods used for TKN analysis.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

Name:                         William Fryfogle
Major:                         Doctor of Pharmacy
Addtl. Contributors:     Jared Repa (Doctor of Pharmacy)
Mentors:                     Caren Steinmiller

Background: College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (CPPS) students report high rates of stress, anxiety, and poor quality of life. It is important to study the impact of stress on learners because it impacts their overall physical and mental health as well as their ability to achieve their academic goals. The primary objective of this study was to identify and determine associations between perceived stress and lifestyle habits among Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: All students in the CPPS at The University of Toledo (UToledo) were invited to participate in this IRB-approved, anonymous, web-based survey. A subset, those students enrolled in the professional division (P1 – P3) of the PharmD program, were used in this data analysis. Results: The study response rate was 38%. According to preliminary results, the P2 students appear to be experiencing the most stress (~82% report very often felt stressed), get the least sleep (~26% get <5 hours per night), and drink the most alcohol (~66% report using alcohol at least once per week). Conclusion: Our initial hypothesis was that students in the final year of didactic coursework (P3) would have the highest reported levels of stress, due to their upcoming clinical rotations and advanced course load. However, we found that the P2 (second year) students reported the highest level of stress, lowest levels of sleep and drink the most alcohol. This could be due to implementation of a new curriculum last year, which they were the first to experience.

Name:                         Paige Grube
Major:                         Pharmacy
Addtl. Contributors:     Carlee Vaughn (Pharmacy)
Mentors:                     Caren Steinmiller

Background: Drug abuse in America is on the rise, however, studies have shown that most pharmacy schools incorporate less than two hours of drug abuse education in their curriculum. Most professionals in the field do not feel confident or comfortable in handling substance use disorders because they were not given adequate training in pharmacy school. Purpose/Objective: The primary objective of the current study was to compare the perceptions and general drug abuse knowledge in freshmen at The University of Toledo in the College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Methods: This IRB-approved, survey-based study included a pre- and post-survey centered around an educational presentation to PHPR1000 students during the Fall semester of 2018 and 2019. Results: There were 361 students in PHPR1000 over the two semesters, 175 students completed the pre-survey, while 137 completed the post-survey. Originally, only 26.3% of students identified substance abuse education as “very important” in their intended career, increasing to 38.5% post-presentation. In 2018, two-thirds of the students indicated substance abuse was at least “somewhat important” for their future in pharmacy. In 2019, 96.5% of students stated they felt more competent regarding substance abuse following the presentation. Conclusion: Most students indicated that substance abuse education was important for pharmacists and the majority felt more competent regarding substance abuse following the presentation. This shows that brief educational tools are effective for learning and should be incorporated into pharmacy curriculums nationwide.

Name:                         Hannah Scott
Major:                         Doctor of Pharmacy
Addtl. Contributors:     Carlee Vaughn (Doctor of Pharmacy)
Mentors:                     Caren Steinmiller

Background: Substance abuse is highly prevalent in the United States when considering either illicit drug use or prescription drug abuse. Assessing the knowledge level of young adults and educating them on substance abuse aids them in recognizing situations that may put them or others at risk. Focusing on educating specifically those entering into healthcare fields will aid in preparing them for encounters with substance abuse in their future professions. Purpose/Objective: The primary objective was to assess students’ substance abuse knowledge relating to stimulants and opioids with a secondary objective of evaluating the students’ understanding of substance abuse after they were given an educational presentation on substance abuse. Methods: This IRB approved study consisted of surveying University of Toledo College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (UToledo CPPS) freshman enrolled in the PHPR1000 course during the 2020 fall semester. The first survey, the pre-presentation survey, evaluated the baseline substance abuse knowledge of students. An educational PowerPoint presentation on substance abuse was then given, after which students received the second survey, the post-presentation survey, to assess their understanding. Results: There were 122 students enrolled in the PHPR 1000 course and 8 (6.6%) students completed the pre-presentation survey, while 7 students (5.7%) completed the post-presentation survey. The pre-presentation survey showed that 75% of students had received substance misuse/abuse education in the past. Students were able to identify the correct classes of oxycodone (80%) and amphetamine (73.3%). Additionally, students were able to correctly identify the difference between substance abuse (86.7%) and misuse (93.3%) as well as the difference between tolerance (86.7%) and dependence (86.7%) after receiving the presentation. Conclusions: A majority of students had received substance misuse/abuse education before. Additionally, a majority were able to correctly match oxycodone and amphetamine to their classes as well as correctly define substance abuse, substance misuse, tolerance, and dependence.

Name:                         Carlee Vaughn
Major:                         Pharmacy
Addtl. Contributors:     Paige Grube (Pharmacy)
Mentors:                     Caren Steinmiller

Background: Substance abuse is a major healthcare epidemic in the United States when considering both illicit drug use or prescription drug abuse. As the most accessible healthcare professionals, pharmacists and pharmacy students need to understand this crisis. Studies have shown that pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists don’t feel prepared with enough substance abuse knowledge to confidently and properly help patients. Assessing the knowledge level of young adults and educating them on substance abuse, aids them in recognizing situations that may put them or others at risk. Focusing on educating specifically those entering into healthcare fields will aid in preparing them for encounters with substance abuse in their future professional lives. Purpose/Objective: The primary objective was to assess college freshmen at UToledo in the College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (CPPS) substance abuse knowledge relating to stimulants and opioids. A secondary objective was to evaluate the students’ understanding of substance abuse after they were given an educational presentation on substance abuse disorders (SUDs). Methods: This IRB-approved study surveyed freshmen enrolled in PHPR1000 before (PRE) and after (POST) an educational presentation during the 2018 and 2019 Fall semesters. The PRE survey was to evaluate baseline knowledge, then students received the POST survey after a one-hour educational presentation. Results: In 2018, there were 189 students enrolled in PHPR1000, 37% completed the PRE and 27% completed the POST survey. These students could correctly identify stimulant (69%) and opioid (83%) drugs by class prior to the SUD presentation. After the presentation, a majority of students correctly identified scenarios that described tolerance (94%) and dependence (94%); identified different roles of pharmacists in combating substance abuse in practice (98%); and recognized appropriate methods for disposal of unused medications (98%). In 2019, there were 172 students enrolled in PHPR1000, 61% completed the PRE and 50% completed the POST survey. Prior to the SUD presentation, students could correctly identify stimulant (84%) and opioid (85%) drugs by class. After the presentation, a majority of students correctly identified scenarios that described tolerance (96%) and dependence (94%); identified different roles of pharmacists in combating substance abuse in practice (95%); and recognized appropriate methods for disposal of unused medications (98%). Conclusions: We recognize a response rate lower than anticipated after the first year and excellent response rates for both surveys from second year. A majority of students had received substance misuse/abuse education in the past. Additionally, a majority were able to correctly identified drugs by drug class, basic SUD definitions, and roles pharmacists can take in preventing SUD and educating/treating patients with SUD. Additionally, nearly all students successfully learned proper disposal methods of unused medications. Students in the pre-pharmacy curriculum understand the importance of SUDs and the future roles they will have in combating issues related to SUDs in their chosen careers.

Name:                         Megan Simpson
Major:                         Medicinal and Biological Chemistry
Addtl. Contributors:     Hannah Scott (Pharmacy Practice), Carlee Vaughn (Pharmacy Practice), Paige Grube
Mentors:                     Caren Steinmiller

In this IRB-approved study, two surveys were distributed to CPPS freshmen enrolled in PHPR1000 during the 2018, 2019, and 2020 fall semesters. The pre-presentation survey was used to gather students’ demographics and initial knowledge on substance abuse/misuse. Then a presentation was given over substance abuse which included definitions, statistics, proper medication disposal, and general substance abuse information. The post-presentation survey was distributed to evaluate the knowledge gained and the overall impressions of the presentation itself. Included are figures and statistical analyses of our findings.

Name:                         Margaret Bennekamper
Major:                         Psychology
Addtl. Contributors:     -
Mentors:                     Andrew Geers

Research provides substantial evidence of both behavioral and physiological effects of placebos as either alternatives for or supplements to pharmacological treatment. However, the deception required in traditional placebo effect experiments is unethical for clinical practice, as it violates patient trust and autonomy. To prevent unethical deception, researchers have begun to study open-label placebo (OLP) effects, which occur when placebos are administered to patients who are provided detailed information about placebos—including that placebos are not active medication. OLPs have value in both substituting and augmenting existing treatment, but there are gaps in OLP literature regarding the influence of social factors on OLP perceptions. This experiment will explore how social feedback alters perceptions of OLPs for the treatment of anxiety. Because communication literature evidences that both expectations and outcomes influence perceptions, in this study, expectations for OLPs (efficacious vs. non-efficacious) and outcomes (worked vs. did not work) with OLPs will be manipulated in a 2x2 between-subjects scenario-based factorial design with the addition of a no-message control group. Building from established communication research (e.g., Geers & Lassiter, 1999), we hypothesize that when participants expect OLPs to be ineffective but then find that they are effective, they will have the most positive perceptions of OLPs. The study will be pre-registered on the Open Science Framework and the sample size has been pre-determined by a power analysis using G*power. The data will be collected online from 180 adults who are currently taking medication to treat their anxiety through Prolific and Qualtrics during April 2021.